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ON THE REASON FOR WHY THIS BLOG IS NAMED ‘THE GLOBAL CIVIL WAR’

July 15, 2018

This contribution was published over five years ago. It is now republished to remind readers why the blog was named “Global Civil War”.

Alternative terms: “world civil war” or “global insurgency”

One possible definition could be that the concept is used to describe simultaneous civil conflict happening at many locations with little regard for national boundaries.

There is no comprehensive definition of a civil war. A simple definition is that it is a violent conflict in which organized groups within a country fight against each other for political control or to change government policy (The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World, 2008).

The best discussion on civil war is Professor Reinhart Kosseleck’s and others article “Revolution, Rebellion, Aufruhr, Buergerkrieg” in Geschichtliche Grundbegriffe. Historisches Lexikon zur politisch-sozialen Sprache in Deutschland, Vol. 5 (1984).

Seemingly global civil war is a contradiction in terms. A civil war must be within a society, because societies are associated with the nation. Thus a civil war should not be global. A global war is normally seen as international. But after 2001 things are different.

Oswald Spengler (1880 – 1936)

This German civilizationist and historian used the term world civil war to explain the fall of the Roman Empire, based on the role of Germanic tribes both within and outside Roman territory.

Arthur Schlesinger, Jr. (1917 – 2007)

This American historian associated world civil war with the promotion of numerous Marxist and Marxist-Leninist anti-colonialist groups often supported by the Soviet Union, a phenomenon the United States and the rest of the West opposed.

Sharad Joshi (1935 – )

This Indian economist and politician after September 11 released an article, “Portends of a World Civil War”, in which he anticipated a possible world civil war different from the world-wide wars of the previous century. It could involve nations internally divided against each other:

It is difficult to say if the radical Seattle leaders contacted Osama Bin Laden or whether it was the other way round. It does not matter, in any case. They appear to work in tandem. The Third World War is unlikely to be a conflict between the US and Afghanistan on the issue of terrorism. It appears it will develop into a much larger conflagration involving most countries.

Buckminster Fuller (1895 – 1983)

This American futurologist discussed the concept of world civil war in Ideas & Integrities (1963).

Dr. Dmytro Dontsov (1883 – 1973)

This Ukrainian great political thinker and publicist-in-exile presented his view on the world civil war in an article published in 1973 (“The Era of Civil Wars and the West”).

Bertil Häggman (1940 – )

This Swedish attorney and author discussed the world civil war in an article in the Swedish publication Contra (in Swedish):

A civil war between revolution and counter revolution has raged since 1789. The civil war celebrated its bicentennial in 1989 and is still continuing. Already the year after the start of the war in Paris the first resistance emerged in England. But the war goes on.

In a revised version in English Häggman has further presented his views on the global civil war:

Introduction

The world civil war started when the kingdom was abolished in France and the prison of the Bastille was stormed on July 14, 1789. After some years of revolutionary rule in France a republic was introduced. The revolutionary Jacobin terror started in 1793 and lasted until 1795 with thousands being executed. Queen Marie Antoinette was among the executed. Royalists and counterrevolutionaries in western France and in many other areas rose in insurgency. The terror regime was lead by the so called Welfare Executive, headed by Maxmilien Robespierre. There was bloody repression against the counterrevolutionary insurgents. A totalitarian regime in France continued with Napoleon’s empire and its policy of conquest in Europe.

Burke and Revolution

Edmund Burke’s book Reflections on the Revolution in France was published in 1790. Burke was a member of the British parliament and warned that the French revolution could have disastrous effects also in England. The talk of human rights and freedom in France was early unmasked in the book. Instead according to Burke the revolution would end in total oppression and terror, which also was the case in 1793.

Edmund Burke before his death in 1797 described the global threat of the Jacobins in a number of letters (one of them was not published until 1812, Letters on a Regicide Peace, 1797). The great Irishman and English philosopher and politician (who was active in Great Britain) before his passing in 1797 the global threat of Jacobinism in a number of letters (one of them was not published posthumously in 1812; Letters on a Regicide Peace, 1797). The quotes underneath are from the brilliant Burke biography by Russell Kirk, Edmund Burke – A Genius Reconsidered (1967).

It was the duty of England to save Europe from the Jacobin danger. A war had to be carried on until the Jacobin danger stopped and Napoleon was defeated. A war to end in military victory had to be conducted, a long war. It also continued until 1815, long after the death of Edmund Burke:

In international law war was justified…They may be wrong and violent: but also they may be ‘the sole means of justice among nations’…Britain should wage war unrelentingly upon the Jacobins…they were bent on ruining the Christian commonwealth of Europe…Jacobinism was a general evil, not merely a local one; so what was being fought was a civil war, not a foreign war…Britain must strike at the heart of Jacobin power, in France. Should Jacobinism be allowed to retain the core of the European commonwealth, in time Jacobinism would triumph everywhere…It did not rely on numbers, but upon tight organization and fanatic belief.

The late American Paleoconservative Professor Russell Kirk in his brilliant biography of Edmund Burke (Edmund Burke -A Genius Reconsidered, 1967) described not only French despotism. Long after the English genius had died Communism and Nazism threatened the European continent and the world. Over 200 years ago it was described by the Irishborn MP:

By propaganda and terror, the masters of such a total state [will conquer]…Only intervention by a free nation, employing all its resources and faith with a force and spirit equal to that of the radical oligarchy, can work emancipation…

The Jacobin state had to be destroyed wrote this one of Conservatism’s most important thinkers, otherwise it would destroy all of Europe. We can still hear the voice of Burke across the centuries against abstract ideologies: Socialism, Communism, Nazism, Maoism, Anarchism and and Islamism.
The French revolution initiated a long line of socialist theories, which reached their “height” with the Bolshevik revolution in 1917.

Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels wrote the Communist Manifesto in 1848 for the first communist party. The main goal was violent revolution and restructuring of society. The communists, they wrote, do not hide their views and intentions. They openly declare that their goal will be reached through violent revolution of all existing societies.

Marx described the Paris commune (the rising in France’s capital 1871) as the first socialist state, which had, he claimed, been initiated by himself. The commune lasted 72 days and cost more than 20,000 lives. The same year Marx published the book The Civil War in France and claimed that the commune was a true dictatorship of the proletariat. In reality it was never socialist. The role of the socialists in the leadership was very limited.

The Model of the French Terror Regime

The Russian revolutionaries had Robespierre and the Jacobins as their models. It was in connection with the Bolshevik revolution in Russia that the mass murder of the European civil war was initiated. This has been described in detail in The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression (in English 1999; in the chapter A State Against Its People: Violence, Repression and Terror in the Soviet Union).

After the taking of power of the Bolsheviks the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) initiated class extermination. The bourgeois was to be exterminated and the European civil war cost more lives. Already in the summer of 1918 European newspapers reported of the terrible crushing of a social class and already in 1921 the losses on the European civil war’s Russian front was reported to be 1, 6 million. Alexander Solzhenitsyn (The Gulag Archipelago, 1974) and Lev Kopelev (To Be Preserved Forever, 1977) have with great insight depicted mass slaughter in the Soviet Union until the death of Stalin in 1953. Karl Radek, who was the CPSU party representative in Germany, wrote in 1919 that the revolution does not debate with its enemies. It crushes them just like counterrevolution (The Development of Socialism from Science to Deed, in German).

German Nazism and Italian Fascism used bourgeois fear that class extermination in Russia would be the model for Germany and Italy if the communists took power. In Germany the Nazis copied the Russian communist technique for extermination of enemies, both political and so called “racial enemies” (Jews).

After a preparatory time in the 1930s a new phase of the European civil war started. Germany and Italy attacked in Europe. Gradually the so called Steel Pact was enlarged to the Anti-Comintern Pact including the Asian great power Japan. After the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor the European civil war developed into a world civil war, which ended with allied victory over Germany, Japan and Italy in 1945.

The Cold War

After 1945 the “hot war” developed into a cold world civil war (Stefan T. Possony, A Century of Conflict – Communist Techniques of World Revolution 1848 – 1950, Chicago 1953). The Chinese communists took power on Mainland China in 1949 and a new era of class extermination was initiated. This phase of the world civil war is described in The Black Book of Communism (China A Long March into Darkness) and in Bertil Haggman’s book The Communist Holocaust (in Swedish 1982). The number of victims of Mao (exceeding those in the Soviet Union) have been estimated to be around 80 million in total.

The communist regime in Moscow collapsed in 1991 after the United States under President Ronald Reagan had changed American foreign policy from containment of the Soviet Union and communism to liberation of the peoples enslaved by Soviets in Eastern and Central Europe. A period of economic and political warfare was initiated in 1982-83 by the United States and led to freedom for a number of oppressed peoples.

The Cold War was a world-encompassing revolutionary attack on the West. The communists in Moscow and all over the world waged a total war to destroy the social structure of the enemy. The goal was to eliminate the leading classes in the West and distribute their property (especially to communists). There was no other goal in this phase of the world civil war named the Cold War. Subversion was the method. The use of military or non-military means was coincidental to circumstances and both legal and illegal methods were used to take power in the West.

The Continuing World Civil War

When France celebrated the 200th anniversary of the French revolution the French historian Francois Furet presented communism going back to the revolution in Paris (his book The Passing of an Illusion. The Idea of Communism in the Twentieth Century, in English 2000 and to be published in Swedish in 2010).

The author of this article is claiming that from 1789 to 1991 first a European civil war and then a world civil war has raged. It has continued after 1991 and especially from September 11, 2001 when radical Islam started war on the West in the spirit of the French revolution. A remaining threat is also the Chinese communist regime ruling over more than 1 billion people, and revolutionaries in West and East supporting continued struggle. This new phase of the world civil war is a great threat to the West. Radical Islam wants, in cooperation with evil and rogue states (like Iran and North Korea), to crush the West or at least weaken it. The risk now is that evil regimes cooperate with Muslim terrorists to transfer weapons of mass destruction (North Korea is believed to have 5,000 tons of biological and chemical weapons).

The terrorists are prepared to attack the United States (“the main enemy”) and other countries in the West to achieve a maximum number of victims. Since September 11, 2001, there is a new phase of the world civil war. The victims will in this century not be counted in the thousands, as during the French revolution. The new enemy of the West in the world civil war is planning millions of victims. The 21st century could become just as bloody as the 20th century, when Communists and Nazis made mass extermination the main element of the ongoing global civil war.

The caliphate in northern Syria has now been defeated but the global civil war is continuing. There are a large number of other Islamist terror groups that are prepared to strike at the West. As long as Iran is allowed to continue supporting Islamist terrorist groups in the Middle East the war continues.

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Completion of Civilization in America and the Challenges to the West of Three Anti-Western Empires

June 8, 2018

Preview of Bertil Haggman’s book on the Heliotropic myth (G.F.W. Hegel: The Sun-the Light-rises in the East…The History of the World travels from East to West…America is the land of the future, where, in the ages that lie before us, the burden of World’s History shall reveal itself) to be published in November 2018.

Bertil Haggman

 

Publishing House Bertil Haggman

2018

 

Contents

Introduction

East to West–Some Mainstream Civilizations

Mesopotamia, Assyria and Persia

East to West–Some Mainstream Civilizations

Mediterranean Civilizations

Greece, Macedonia

The Roman Republic and Empire

 

Introduction

In 2002 Wall Street Journal (“What We’re Fighting For”, April 29, 2002) launched a new Monday column naming it “The Western Front”. It could be seen as reference to World War I. “It was that war”, wrote assistant editor Brendan Miniter (in 2018 Vice President & Editor of Editorials, Dallas Morning News,Dallas, Texas) “that accelerated Western civilization down into a dangerous pit from which it may now be emerging.” Mr. Miniter also asked if it is so that some cultures create spiritual, material and political prosperity while others breed nothing but oppression?

“Now it is time for Western culture”, he continued, “to stand up again. Worries about imperialism, especially cultural imperialism, should be cast off. Global free trade isn’t imperialistic; it’s a spread of a natural right, economic freedom…All cannot remain quiet on the Western front. The West, not just America, is locked in a struggle with forces that question its foundation…the West is worth defending.” It gives hope to the world for lasting peace among men and the spread of freedom to lands that have only known tyranny.

Could this be the first signs of a growing understanding that there is a completion in the West of civilization, a belief that could partly be based on the heliotropic myth and constant rejuvenation of Western civilization through advanced technology and strong economy ? The West differs from other civilizations. It’s “Universal State” (United States) has come to stay and one way to guarantee continued strength is for instance space power. The earlier opposition between land- and sea-power is turning into a question of control of space (civilian and military use). It would guarantee for the future the position of strength of the West. Let us take a look at these requirements for global Western control and how civilization has moved from East to West.

Could this be the first signs, among others, of a growing understanding that there is a completion in the West of civilization, a belief that could partly be based on the heliotropic myth and the constant rejuvenation of Western civilization through advanced party by technology and a strong economy ? The West differs from other civilizations in that it’ influence is still growing and there are no signs of weakening.

When Max Lerner (1902 – 1992) in his book America As A Civilization (1957) proposed that America had created its own civilization distinct from the European he met hard resistance from no less than grand macro-historian Arnold Toynbee (1889 – 1975). Others protested as well. In 2007 it was 50 years since Lerner’s book (it was republished in 1987 with an appendix covering the period 1957 – 1987). With the Soviet Union collapsing the United States remained as the only superpower in the world. America has finally earned to be characterized as a civilization of its own. In 1958 Lerner had an exchange with Toynbee in Paris (Western World, December 1958). Lerner’s idea offended the British historian’s grand historical sense. America, so Toynbee, was only a tag-end of Western civilization. Other critics joined in (the symposion ”Is America A Civilization?” Organized by Marshall Fidgwick in ”Shenandoah” (published at Washington and Lee University. The text appeared in vol. X, no. 1, Autumn 1958).

Much has been published since 1991 on the role of the United States in the world. Let us take a look at requirements for global Western control and how civilization has moved from east to west but also at Lerner’s arguments for an American civilization about 50 years ago.

It has become increasingly clear that the United States is the most powerful state in world history. Professor Paul Kennedy (b. 1945), who in the 1980s was one of the proponents of American eclipse, has now admitted that in military terms there is only one player that counts – the United States (Paul Kennedy, “The Eagle Has Landed”, Financial Times, London, February 1, 2002). Military spending is higher, absolutely and relatively, than any other nation in history. It should be noted here that it was President Ronald Reagan that initiated this military spending policy in the 1980s. He was also responsible for the long economic upturn in the United States lasting into the 1990s.

Now, in the beginning of the 21st century, there has, in the words of Kennedy, never existed such a disparity of power. There is no comparison.

Released in 1991 from the expenses of the Cold War free enterprise in the United States boomed all through the 1990s. American companies started cutting costs, making operations leaner and more competitive. Investment in new technologies was intensive and America led the communication revolution. The rising productivity was combined with cuts in deficits.

US strength is impressive: 45 percent of all internet traffic is in the United States, 75 percent of Nobel laureates in the sciences, economy and medicine reside in America, 12 to 15 American universities have through vast financing left other universities in the world behind. The biggest companies, the largest banks are all in the United States.

The dominating factor securing the position of the final empire in the West for the United States, is the technological drive. Technology and free enterprise are the most important factors in today’s world for civilizational strength. This has made Western civilization unique and is a guarantee for completion in the West. There are of course other factors of importance to be taken into account like freedom and democracy, that are unique to the West, but science and technology is playing the main role.

Since the Early Middle Ages the heliotropic myth, the notion that civilization is following the movement of the sun from East to West, has been influental in the West. Myths are important parts of a civilisation including that of the West. It is the story that is binding people together and the heliotropic myth has been offering hope for Westerners. It played a prominent role in the idea of emigration across the Atlantic to America. Thus it has been inspiring for generations. Eternity in time and giving meaning to time, the myth is illustrating the beginning and the end.

When in 1996 we published about the question of American eclipse in a short essay (in Winn Schwartau, “Information Warfare”, 1996) the matter of the world power was still not fully resolved. Would civilization move across the Pacific Ocean to East Asia on it’s way to complete a full circle? Were China or Japan to follow the United States as leaders in a completion of history?

Much has however changed in a few years. Economic recession lost Japan the place as a possible successor empire to the West (although the economy is recovedring). China is still a rising power and certainly can be a successor it still is far behind the West.

It has become increasingly clear that the United States is the most powerful state in world history. Professor Paul Kennedy, who in the 1980s was one of the proponents of American eclipse, has now admitted that in military terms there is only one player that counts – the United States (Paul Kennedy, “The Eagle Has Landed”, Financial Times, London, February 1, 2002). Military spending is higher, absolutely and relatively, than any other nation in history. It should be noted here that it was President Ronald Reagan that initiated this military spending policy in the 1980s. He was also responsible for the long economic upturn in the United States lasting into the 1990s.

Now, in the beginning of the 21st century, there has, in the words of Kennedy, never existed such a disparity of power. There is no comparison.

The Soviet Union collapsed in 1991. Released from the expenses of the Cold War free enterprise in the United States boomed all through the 1990s. American companies started cutting costs, making operations leaner and more competitive. Investment in new technologies was intensive and America led the communication revolution. The rising productivity was combined with cuts in deficits.

US strength is impressve: 45 percent of all internet traffic is in the United States, 75 percent of Nobel laureates in the sciences, economy and medicine reside in America, 12 to 15 American universities have through vast financing left other universities in the world behind. The biggest companies, the largest banks are all in the United States.

In the view of this writer the dominating fact, however, securing the position of the final empire in the West for the United States, is the technological drive. Technology and free enterprise are the most important factors in today’s world for civilizational strength. This has made Western civilization unique and is a guarantee for completion in the West. There are of course other factors of importance to be taken into account like freedom, democracy, that are unique to the West, but science and technology is playing the main role.

MADAME NHU AND THE STRUGGLE FOR VIETNAM FREEDOM

May 31, 2018

One of the most recognized figures in the history of the Republic of Vietnam (Viet Nam Cong Hoa) was Tran Le Xuan, better known as Madame Nhu, the wife of Ngo Dinh Nhu, the brother of the first Vietnamese President Ngo Dinh Diem and the unofficial “First Lady” of South Vietnam. Aside from her husband, Madame Nhu herself had quite an illustrious ancestry. Her mother was Than Trong Nam Tran who was a daughter of Princess Nhu Phien who was the youngest daughter of H.I.M. Dong Khanh, the ninth Emperor of the Nguyen Dynasty.

She married Ngo Dinh Nhu and converted to Christianity, becoming a Catholic and a very public face for the young South Vietnamese government. Her husband, Ngo Dinh Nhu ran the Can Lao political movement in support of the personalist regime of Diem. Madame Nhu was, in every respect, a fiery and committed woman, which both her friends and her many enemies could agree on. She played a leading role in the moral reform President Diem instituted in South Vietnam, closing down brothels, opium dens and gambling houses. She was at the front of imposing what was known as the “campaign for public morality” on South Vietnam, which included the abolition of divorce, contraceptives and abortion. Nightclubs and ball rooms were also often targets. Even beauty pageants were halted as Madame Nhu believed they simply contributed to the objectification of women. This campaign of decency, while admirable, was met with a great deal of hostility by those who did not share Madame Nhu’s view of ethics.

“The Dragon Lady” as she came to be called, was also a passionate anti-communist and was determined that women should play a leading role in defending their country from Communist infiltration. She formed a corps of women warriors and there is a famous photograph of her at their training ground, firing a .38 pistol for the first time. That event sums up a great deal of her character. Having never used a firearm before she was startled by the noise of the first shot. Laughing it off, she vowed that she would not flinch again and fired the remaining five rounds as though she were an expert. She also fostered a renewal of commemorations for the Trung Sisters, the heroic co-Queens of early Viet Nam who fought against Chinese occupation.

Madame Nhu was, like the rest of the Diem clan and most Vietnamese of her background, extremely devoted to her family. In her eyes, her husband was the heart of the Diem regime and could do no wrong. Commenting on the American effort to remove Ngo Dinh Nhu, she said that Diem refused because he knew that, as she said, “my husband could do without him, but he, he could not do without my husband”. She was also patriotic.

After being removed from power, Diem was assassinated along with his brother Nhu. Madame Nhu was, at that time, on a tour of the United States giving speeches in support of Vietnam’s war against Communism. When hearing of the event and the rumored involvement of the United States she said, “Whoever has the Americans as allies does not need enemies”. She went on to predict a dark future for her country, which was sadly to prove all too acurate. With Diem gone, the U.S. was firmly in control of the Vietnam conflict and Madame Nhu retired from public life to Italy.

Comment: The struggle for Vietnam freedom continues both outside and inside Vietnam. Madame Nhu was a patriotic leader of South Vietnam and should be more widely recognized as such.

NICCOLO MACHIAVELLI, JAMES BURNHAM AND SINGAPORE

May 31, 2018

It has been said the Lee Quan Yew’s Singapore is a city state built on the principles of Niccoló Machiavelli’s political science formulas. Below is a look at the great Italian’s conception of history in the view of the American theorist James Burnham (1905 – 1987):

1

”Political life, according to Machiavelli, is never static, but in continual change. There is no way of avoiding this change…The process of change is repetitive, and roughly cyclical. That is to say , the pattern of change occurs again and again in history (so that studying the past, we learn also about the present and future); and this pattern comprises a more or less recognizable cycle.”

James Burnham, Machiavellians – The Defenders of Freedom, first ed. 1943., p. 70.

2

”The recurring pattern of change expresses the more or less permanent core of human nature as it functions politically. The instability of all governments and political forms follows in part from the limitless human appetite for power.”

(pp. 71-72)

3

”Machiavelli assign a major function in political affairs to what he calls ’Fortune’…From the passages it becomes clear what Machiavelli means by ’Fortune’. Fortune is all those causes of historical change that are beyond the deliberate, rational control of men.”

(pp. 72-73)

4

”Machiavelli believes that religion is essential to the well-being of a state. In discussing religion, as in discussing human nature, Machiavelli confines himself to political function”.

(p. 75)

”What kind of government did Machiavelli think best?…Machiavelli’s writings, taken in their
entirety, leave no doubt about the answer. Machiavelli thinks that the best kind of government is a republic, what he called a ’commonwealth’…If a republic is the best form government, it does not follow that a republic is possible at every moment and for all things.”

(pp 77-78)

5

As protectors of liberty, Machiavelli has no confidence in individual men as such; driven by unlimited ambition, deceiving even themselves, they are always corrupted by power. But individuals can, to some extent and for a while, be disciplined within the established framework of wise laws. [If liberty is to be preserved] no person and no magistrate may be permitted to be above the law.”

(p.79)

6

”Liberty, then – not rhetorical liberty of an impossible and misconceived utopia, but such concrete liberty as is, when they are fortunate, within the grasp of real men, with their real limitations – is the dominant ideal of Machiavelli, and his final norm of judgement. Tyranny is liberty’s opposite, and no man has been a clearer foe of tyranny. No man clearer, and few more eloquent.”

(p. 81)

LIBERATING UKRAINE: PRESIDENT GEORGE H.W. BUSH, PRIME MINISTER YAROSLAV STETSKO SUPPORTED THE UKRAINIAN INSURGENT ARMY (UPA)

May 28, 2018

Both Bush and Stetsko supported the UPA in its liberation strategy for Ukraine.

Extremely brutal occupation policies of the Nazis forced the party for liberation, OUN (b) Provid (the governing body of the organization) to take up arms and defend the population. The first UPA hundred (military unit) was formed on January 22, 1943. And on February 7 it already defeated the German commandant’s office in the district center Volodymyrets, Rivne region.

In the spring of 1943, the UPA constantly increased the extent of resistance. Their fiercest clashes with the Germans happened near Lutsk, Kovel, Horokhiv, Rivne, Kremenets, Kostopil, Sarny and Lanivtsi. During March 1943, the insurgents seized regional centers five times. At the end of the first spring month, the German officials reported to Reichskommissar Erich Koch that only two areas in Volyn were free of “gangs”.

The occupation administration began undertaking extensive anti-partisan operations involving armor and aircraft. At the end of April, a division for fighting the UPA was redeployed to Berezne, Lyudvypil, Mizoch, Ostroh, Shumsk, and Kremenets.

The Nazis counterinsurgency actions proved to have little effect. While in March the UPA units attacked the German economic targets only 8 times, in April there were already 57 attacks, and 70 in May.

Heinrich Schoene, General Commissar of Volyn-Podillya, reported at a meeting in Rivne June 5, 1943 to Reich Minister for the Occupied Eastern Territories Alfred Rosenberg that “Ukrainian nationalists cause more difficulties than the Bolshevik gangs” to his administration.

The Soviet partisans’ leadership also recognized this fact later. Petro Vershyhora, commander of Soviet partisans, reported to the Ukrainian Partisan Movement Headquarters on March 4, 1944, “We cannot make the same mistake in Poland as we did in Volyn by passing the leadership of a popular uprising against the Germans into the hands of counterrevolutionary groups of nationalists.”

The available Nazi forces were not enough to suppress resistance. Therefore, Erich von dem Bach, commander of anti-partisan forces in the East, took the struggle against the UPA in his hands in July 1943. He commanded the 8th SS Cavalry Division Florian Geyer (10,000 soldiers) and 10 mechanized infantry battalions with artillery. The grouping was covered by 27 aircraft from the air and 50 tanks and armored vehicles on the ground.

However, UPA units maneuvered and gave the enemy no chance to destroy them. Overall, in July the insurgents attacked German bases 295 times, and maintenance building 119 times.

In early August 1943, von dem Bach was sent to another area. The German pressure weakened, and the UPA intensified their anti-German operations: 391 assaults on garrisons and 151 attacks on enterprises.

But soon, Hans-Adolf Prützmann, Higher SS and Ukrainian Police Leader, organized a new attack on the UPA. This attack lasted from August 23 to September 9, 1943 in South Volyn. First, aircraft bombed the village of Antonivtsi, which was the headquarters of the Bohun group. Then the punitive expedition attacked the UPA camp in Kremenets forests. The Kurins(battalions) had to split into small units and break out of the encirclement.

In the summer of 1943 the insurgency anti-Nazi movement spread over Halychyna. On August 18, Ukrainian People’s Self-Defense (UNS, the original name of UPA in Halychyna) attacked the German stone quarry in Skole, Lviv region. The nationalists freed 150 forced laborers and killed the camp security guards.

Autumn 1943 was the beginning of larger scale battles between the insurgents and the Nazis. On September 3, Ukrainian soldiers on commanding eminence executed a German battalion that was travelling by narrow-gauge rail in the mountains near the town of Dolyna. The invaders left about 200 soldiers on the battlefield. On September 25-29, the Trembita hundred repelled a punitive attack on their camp on Mount Stovba.

On November 29-30, 1943, there was heavy fighting between 1.5-2 thousand Schutzmanns and the Kryvonis-II Kurin near the village of Nedilna, Sambir district. The insurgents retreated with considerable losses, almost the entire headquarters and the leader of the Kurin were killed on the battlefield.

Prützmann undertook the last major counterinsurgency action in Volyn in November 1943. On November 2-3, aircraft bombed the town of Stepan and ousted the units of Zahrava group to the north. Simultaneously, on November 3 German planes bombed and shelled the town of Kolky, where the UPA had formed the Kolky Republic. It should be noted that the Nazis could not seize the Republic from June to early November 1943, and then they carried out a clearance operation, killing 600 civilians.

In October-November 1943, the UPA-ONS conducted 47 fights against German occupiers, and the UPA village self-defense clashed with them 125 times. The Nazis lost more than 1,500 soldiers.

The Nazis failed to suppress the UPA resistance completely. The approaching Soviet-German front drained most part of military forces. Therefore, the German generals stopped undertaking actions against insurgents in Volyn. In Halychyna, the confrontation lasted until the end of summer 1944. Ukrainian People’s Self Defense (UNS) was re-formed into the UPA-West. In March-May 1944, the UPA defended Ukrainian villages against looting by the Germans. In May, the Wehrmacht defeated the Halaida and Siromantsi hundreds in Lviv region.

From May 31 to June 6, 1944, the units of the Wehrmacht’s 7th Armored Division fought against the UPA in the Chornyi Lis village. By mid-summer the confrontation in Halychyna peaked.

The biggest clashes of the UPA-West with the German-Hungarian troops took place around Mount Lopata on the boundary between Drohobych and Stanislav (now – Ivano-Frankivsk) regions. These events were also detailed in written reports of the Polish underground. From July 6 through July 16, 1944, heavy fighting took place – both with artillery engagement and close-handed fights. Insurgents under Vasyl Andrusyak’s command won. Fifty Ukrainians were killed. The invaders lost 200 soldiers and retreated.

Under pressure of the Red Army the Wehrmacht left Ukraine. The UPA continued to skirmish and disarm German units until early September.

There were episodes in the history of the Ukrainian insurgency movement when some commanders tried to illegally negotiate with the German command using the formula “neutrality in exchange for weapons” or “food in exchange for weapons.” Besides, several cases are known when from 80 to 100 small arms were handed over to the insurgents using the above formula. But the Ukrainian underground leadership did not welcome such arrangements. In some cases, it even led to severe punishment. In March 1944, the UPA field court martial sentenced Porphyriy Antoniuk, the first initiator of the unauthorized negotiations, to death. In April 1944, Mykola Oliynyk was sentenced to death by the UPA court.

However, the talks with the German occupation officials were subsequently held by the OUN (b) Provid. The occupiers wanted the OUN and UPA to stop fighting against them so that the Germans could focus on repelling the Soviet Army’s advance. The OUN members sought to secure the release of prisoners of concentration camps (Stepan Bandera, Yaroslav Stetsko and many others) as well as to obtain weapons, which they always lacked. Meetings between the Provid members and German authorities took place in March, April, June and July 1944. As a result of them, the insurgents received several hundred units of weapons, and in September – October 1944 Bandera and other Ukrainian nationalists were released, though they remained under the Gestapo supervision.

Instead, insurgents decreased intensity of their anti-Nazi actions (mainly in Volyn), but did not stop them. Major Müller, officer of the group of armies “South” reported: “While some Ukrainian nationalist gangs follow the orders of the German Wehrmacht or perform its task, others fight fiercely against the Wehrmacht.”

According to researchers, 12 thousand German invaders and their allies were killed by UPA members. The Ukrainian underground and insurgent units also lost 10-12 thousand people during the armed confrontation with the occupiers.

On August 25, 1943 Hans-Adolf Prützmann, Higher SS and Ukrainian Police Leader, sent the following telegram: “To the Commander of the group of armies ‘South’. Due to the fact that the Reichsführer-SS ordered to send strong teams of military units previously assigned to me to the front, I have to limit myself to the remnants of these units to suppress the Ukrainian national uprising in Volyn. Since this results in appearing of large uncontrolled areas in the north of Ukraine, in the near future there will be increased pressure from gangs in the south sector.”

SWEDISH-UKRAINIAN RELATIONS – PRESIDENT YAROSLAV STETSKO IN STOCKHOLM 1964

May 15, 2018

At a 1964 visit in Stockholm exiled Ukrainian President Yaroslav Stetsko of Ukraine celebrated the memory of King Charles XII by placing a wreath on the tomb of the King. He expressed his gratitude to Sweden in the following way:

We, the Ukrainians, Estonians, Lithuanians, Georgians and other peoples subjugated by Russia, today honor the memory of the heroic King of the Swedes, Charles XII. Two hundred and fifty years agao this great statesman and European foresaw the danger to Europe from Russia and strove to prevent it.

In this common struggle by the Swedish people under Charles XII and the Ukrainians led by Hetman Ivan Mazepa, our countries were abandoned by the rest of Europe.

In the memory of our nations Charles XII remains for ever the defender of our rights and freedoms, the defender of the ideal of independence for our nations.

Today, here, in the name of the Ukrainian, Estonian, Lithuanian, Latvian, Georgian and other nations of Eastern Europe, we express our recognition and gratitude to the Swedish people for the sacrifices made by them on the battlefield of Poltava in 1709 and on other battlefields in Eastern Europe for our independence.

Comment: The wreath laying ceremony took place in relation to the arrival of Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchov in Sweden on Monday, June 22nd, toward 12:00 oclock noon. He had been invited, in spite popular protests by the Swedish people, by the social democratic government. The visit of Stetsko angered the Soviet leader who later during the visit lost his temper. The reception by people to Krushchov and his motorcade was reserved and very cool.

NETANYAHU: NIXING IRAN NUCLEAR DEAL A HISTORIC MOVE

May 9, 2018

Washington Free Beacon on May 8, 2018 reported on the Israeli reaction to the United States leaving the Iran nuclear deal. Excerpts below:

Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu on Tuesday thanked President Donald Trump for his “courageous leadership” after he announced that the United States is leaving the Iran nuclear deal.

“President Trump did a historic move, and this is why Israel thanks President Trump for his courageous leadership, his commitment to confront the terrorist regime in Tehran, and his commitment to ensure that Iran never gets nuclear weapons. Not today, not in a decade, not ever,” Netanyahu said.

“It is clear to me that we cannot prevent an Iranian nuclear bomb under the decaying and rotten structure of the current agreement,” Trump said from the White House Diplomatic Room. “The Iran deal is defective at its core. If we do nothing, we know exactly what will happen.”

In discussing the lead-up to withdrawal decision, the president said his administration had consulted with U.S. allies in the Middle East, among them Israel.

“We have also consulted with our friends from across the Middle East,” Trump said. “We are unified in our understanding of the threat and in our conviction that Iran must never acquire a nuclear weapon. After these consultations, it is clear to me that we cannot prevent an Iranian nuclear bomb under the decaying and rotten structure of the current agreement.”

Following Trump’s remarks, the White House National Security Adviser John Bolton told reporters that sanctions on Iran will be “immediately” reinstated.

“The decision is very clear,” Bolton said. “It’s a firm statement of American resolve to prevent not only Iran from getting nuclear weapons” but also from strengthening its ballistic missile program and support for terror groups.
Comment. Sanctions against Iran are welcome. They will contribute to stopping Iran’s ongoing foreign adventures in Lebanon, Syria and Yemen. There are signs that ordinary Iranians are tired of Tehrans costly foreign adventures. They want peace and a decent life.

FORMER SECRETARY OF STATE JOHN KERRY ATTEMPTS TO SAVE IRAN NUCLEAR DEAL WITH POSSIBLE ILLEGAL ACTIVITIES

May 6, 2018

Fox News on May 4, 2018 reported on the ”shadow diplomacy” of former Secretary of State John Kerry in an effort to save the Iran nuclear deal. Excerpts below:

The Boston Globe reported Friday that Kerry sat down twice with Iranian Foreign Minister Javad Zarif in recent months to strategize in a bid to save the deal, as part of what the Globe described as “an aggressive yet stealthy” mission to put pressure on the Trump administration to keep the deal in some form.

…Kerry has been ramping up his meetings ahead of that deadline. He reportedly met with German President Frank-Walter Steinmeier — who was foreign minister of Germany when the deal was negotiated. He has also met with French President Emmanuel Macron twice and spoken by phone with European Union foreign affairs chief Federica Mogherini.

Kerry’s actions could violate the Logan Act which prohibits private citizens from negotiating on behalf of the U.S. government without authorization.

“John Kerry helped craft a flaccid deal that granted the terror regime in Tehran vast monetary and geopolitical concessions, even as it put them on the glide path to nuclear weapons by its own terms,” Sohrab Ahmari, senior writer at Commentary magazine, told Fox News. “The biggest public service he can render now is to go away.”

Florida Sen. Marco Rubio said Kerry’s move “certainly raises Logan Act questions.”

According to The Globe, Kerry has also been trying to get Congress on his side by placing dozens of phone calls, including to House Speaker Paul Ryan.

Kerry is reported to have coordinated his push with a group of former top State Department advisers who helped negotiate the Iran deal — named Diplomacy Works. The group has reportedly chosen to focus on Europeans, Israelis and non-partisan experts to try and salvage the deal.

Washington Times on May 5, 2018 reported that thousands of supporters of the Iranian opposition gathered just blocks from the White House for the downfall of Tehran’s theocratic government and invited President Donald Trump to “rip up” the Iran nuclear deal. Excerpts below:

“We do not want President Trump to renegotiate, we want him to rip it up,” said Shiran Nariman, a spokeswoman for the Organization of Iranian American Communities (OIAC) and an event organizer.

At no time has the regime been so engulfed in crisis, and at no time has the time been so ripe to organize and expand the uprising.

The international community should abandon the agreement and instead conduct unconditional inspections of Iran’s nuclear weapons and ballistic missiles program.

These were opinions expressed on May 5.

[One of the speakers was Mr. Rudi Giuliani]. He noted that Mr. Trump backed the Iranian protests earlier this year with the simple words “we support their fight for freedom” and the crowd erupted.

All speakers predicted regime change is coming soon, with Ms. Nariman of the National Council of Resistance (NCRI) of Iran noting that one of the organization’s most prominent Washington supporters, John R. Bolton, is President Trump’s new national security adviser.

Newly installed Secretary of State Mike Pompeo also supports regime change.

Ms. Nariman expressed hope that this group, in addition to Mr. Giuliani and Mr. Trump, would soon bring about change.

GROWING SUPPORT FOR A FREE IRAN IN THE UNITED STATES

May 5, 2018

Washington Times on May 3, 2018 reported on growing Iranian-American support for a free Iran. Excerpts below:

Iranian-Americans are holding a major conference in the District of Columbia [May 5] to support the protests that have arisen inside Iran against the Islamic Republic’s hard-line government in recent months.

Organizers say a goal of the conference — featuring speeches by …former New York City Mayor Rudolph Giuliani and former Democratic New Mexico Gov. Bill Richardson — is to drum up stronger U.S. recognition for the pro-democracy movement inside Iran.

Washington could and should do more to formally “recognize the Iranian opposition,” said Shirin Nariman, a spokeswoman for the Organization of Iranian American Communities.

The OIAC is a grass-roots arm of the National Council of Resistance of Iran, an exile Iranian dissident group that has long called for a new government in Tehran and criticized the Islamic Republic’s human rights record. It says more than 1,000 Iranians from across the U.S. will be on hand for the conference at the Grand Hyatt Hotel just a few blocks from the White House.

Delegates “representing Iranian-American communities from 40 states … will voice support for the continuing protests and the uprising that erupted in 142 cities across [Iran], and for a free, democratic, secular, and non-nuclear republic in Iran,” the group said in a statement.

Comment: This is welcome news. During the Obama administration (2008 to 2016) the Iran opposition was ignored. Iran is a challenger to the West and broader Western support for the opposition could lead to the fall of the Tehran theocracy.

MOZAMBICAN FREEDOM FIGHTER PASSED AWAY AT AGE OF 65

May 5, 2018

Fox News on May 4, 2018, reported that Afonso Dhlakama, freedom fighter and opposition leader, has died. Excerpts below:

During the civil war that ended in 1992 he lead the [anticommunist] Renamo [Mozambican National Resistance] struggle against the marxist Frelimo party…

…Dhlakama died in the Gorongosa area of central Sofala province, where he was based…tensions have eased in Mozambique in 2017 as Dhlakama met President Filipe Nyusi in Gorongosa to discuss disputes between the two sides.

Comment: When Mozambique gained independence from Portugal in 1975 it lead to socialist rule of Samora Machel. The administration of President Ronald Reagan supported aiding anti-Communist movements in countries aligned with the Soviet Union but Washington did not support the pro-Western Mozambique National Resistance (RENAMO), which wanted market reforms for its country. RENAMO was a democratic movement on the verge of overthrowing a Soviet client state. A RENAMO victory would have shown the world that the Soviet Union and its Brezhnev Doctrine were not invincible.

During the Cold War Jack Wheeler of the Freedom Research Foundation in California was a staunch supporter of the armed struggle around the world for freedom from marxism-leninism. Thomas W. Schaaf Jr. was executive director of the Mozambique Research Center in Washington D.C., which supported Renamo.

American businessmen and evangelical Christian Christians during the 1980s aided Renamo. Supporting institutions were the Heritage Foundation in Washington D.C. and the Free the Eagle group. Renamo also had strong supporters in the US Congress, notably Sen. Jesse Helms (R-N.C.) and Rep. Danny Lee Burton (R-Ind.).

It seems likely that stronger Western support for Renamo in the 1980s leading to victory would have resulted in a more prosperous Mozambique after the collapse of the Soviet Union.