Archive for the ‘GLOBAL CIVIL WAR’ Category

CHINA’S KILLING MACHINE – ORGAN-HARVESTING BY EXECUTION

July 30, 2019

New York Post on June 1, 2019, published an article by US China expert Steven W. Mosher on the brutal China organ harvesting for profit. The world is beginning to understand that transplants in China are costing human lives – every time. Excerpts below:

Zheng Qiaozhi — we will call him George — still has nightmares. He was interning at China’s Shenyang Army General Hospital when he was drafted to be part of an organ-harvesting team.

The prisoner was brought in, tied hand and foot, but very much alive. The army doctor in charge sliced him open from chest to belly button and exposed his two kidneys. “Cut the veins and arteries,” he told his shocked intern. George did as he was told. Blood spurted everywhere.

The kidneys were placed in an organ-transplant container.

Then the doctor ordered George to remove the man’s eyeballs. Hearing that, the dying prisoner gave him a look of sheer terror, and George froze. “I can’t do it,” he told the doctor, who then quickly scooped out the man’s eyeballs himself.

George was so unnerved by what he had seen that he soon quit his job at the hospital and returned home. Later, afraid that he might be the next victim of China’s forced organ-transplant business, he fled to Canada and assumed a new identity.

First-person accounts like George’s are understandably rare.

Experts estimate that between 60,000 and 100,000 organs are transplanted annually in China. Multiply that number times the cost of a liver transplant ($170,000) or a kidney transplant ($130,000), and the result is an eye-popping $10 billion to 20 billion.

…experts like Ethan Gutmann, author of several books on the subject, believe that the vast majority [of organs] obtained by executing prisoners of conscience.
One particularly rich source of fresh organs for China’s transplant industry in recent years has been the Falun Gong, which was declared a heretical Buddhist sect in 1999 by then-Party Secretary Jiang Zemin.

The Muslim minorities of China’s far west are apparently next in line. Over the past couple of years, between one to three million Uighur and Kazakh men have been arrested and sent to concentration camps — Beijing calls them “vocational training centers” — in the region.

Tellingly, all these prisoners of conscience not only had their blood drawn upon entry but also had their organs examined, presumably so they could be more quickly matched with those willing to pay for them.

All this suggests that assembly-line harvesting of Uighur, Kazakh and Tibetan organs is already getting underway.

Despite China’s claims to the contrary, its transplant business is booming. And, thanks to a Western technology called ECMO — extracorporeal membrane oxygenation — it has become much, much more lucrative.

Twenty years ago, it was only possible to successfully harvest an organ or two — two kidneys, say, or a heart — from a transplant victim. The other organs, such as the lungs and liver, had to be discarded because they had been deprived of oxygen too long to be usable.

Now, the victims are put on an ECMO machine, which serves as an artificial heart and lung and keeps every last organ fresh enough to be harvested. Before ECMO, a victim’s few salvageable organs were worth maybe $250,000. Now, with ECMO, every organ can be harvested — even the skin — and the victim is easily worth two or three times as much. ECMO, which has saved countless lives in the West, has had the opposite effect in China: It has accelerated the killing of innocent people.

Proof that the slaughter of “donors” continues is revealed by the country’s amazingly short wait times for organs. In normal countries, sick people can wait for many months or years for an organ to become available.

Only in China do organ tourists receive a kidney, heart or liver transplant within days or weeks of arriving. In fact, in some cases patients have reported that their transplant surgeries were scheduled before they even arrived in China — something that could only happen as a result of forced organ harvesting.

The world is beginning to wake up to the fact that virtually every organ transplant in China costs the life of an innocent human being.

China’s organ-transplant assembly line is not only murder for hire but may turn out to be a kind of genocide as well.

Steven W. Mosher is the president of the Population Research Institute and the author of “Bully of Asia: Why China’s Dream is the New Threat to World Order,” out now.

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COMMUNISM’S DEATH TOLL

July 28, 2019

Foundation for Economic Education’s ”FEE Daily” on July 28, 2019, published an article on Ukraine’s legislation making natioinal socialism and communism legally synonymous. Below is an excerpt from the article:

The Black Book of Communism, an international bestseller, reveals that the handiwork of twentieth-century communists more than matched the Nazis. In fact, a glance at the figures shows the communist death toll dwarfs the bloody work of the Nazis: In China, 65 million dead; in the Soviet Union, nearly 20 million; Vietnam, 1 million; Cambodia, 2 million. North Korea is 2 million and counting. Chalk up a few million more with Eastern Europe (1 million), Africa (1.7 million), and Afghanistan (1.5 million).

The different perceptions of the horrors of Nazi Germany to horrors of twentieth-century communism have long been a source of frustration for many who see cognitive dissonance in how the hammer-and-sickle is treated compared to the Swastika.

For lawmakers in Ukraine, this cognitive dissonance was apparently more than they could bear. In 2015, legislation was passed to make Nazism and communism legally synonymous.

In 2019, that law was upheld by a Ukrainian court.

“The communist regime, like the Nazi regime, inflicted irreparable damages to human rights because during its existence, it had total control over society and politically motivated persecutions and repressions, violated its international obligations, and its own constitutions and laws,” the court declared, in a ruling published on its website.

The ruling…paves the way for the removal of most of the remaining communist monuments and landmarks bearing Soviet names in Ukraine. It also prohibits the use of Nazi and communist symbols.

The Starvation of Ukraine

That communism is a touchy subject in Ukraine should come as no surprise. As the Pulitzer Prize-winning author Anne Applebaum chronicled in her 2017 book Red Famine: Stalin’s War on Ukraine, nearly 4 million Ukrainians died from starvation in the Soviet Union between 1931 and 1934. Applebaum makes is quite clear how this happened.

“The Soviet Union’s disastrous decision to force peasants to give up their land and join collective farms; the eviction of ‘kulaks,’ the wealthier peasants, from their homes; the chaos that followed,” she writes, “all [was] ultimately the responsibility of Joseph Stalin, the General Secretary of the Soviet Communist Party.”

Millions of people starving is horrifying. What’s more terrifying is that this policy was not accidental.

As late as the summer of 1932 mass starvation appeared avoidable, Applebaum writes. The Soviets could have asked for international aid, as they had in previous famines. It could have stopped exporting grain or halted grain requisitions. Party leaders chose not to.

Instead, in the autumn of 1932, the Soviet Politburo, the elite leadership of the Soviet Communist Party, took a series of decisions that widened and deepened the famine in the Ukrainian countryside and at the same time prevented peasants from leaving the republic in search of food. At the height of the crisis, organized teams of policemen and party activists, motivated by hunger, fear, and a decade of hateful and conspiratorial rhetoric, entered peasant households and took everything edible: potatoes, beets, squash, beans, peas, anything in the oven and anything in the cupboard, farm animals and pets.

As a result, 3.9 million Ukrainians died. In light of these horrors, it’s no surprise that many in Ukraine, which suffered under Nazi rule the following decade, see little difference between the collective atrocities of the Nazis and the collective atrocities of the communists.

ÅRTIONDEN I DET PSYKOLOGISKA FÖRSVARET FRÅN 1975

May 28, 2019

Författaren Bertil Häggman har tidigare på denna blogg publicerat Del 3 av sina politiska memoarer. Här publiceras nu ett utdrag ur Del 4, som till skillnad från Del 1 (publicerad av Kindle Publishing House) är på svenska och behandlarförfattarens militära tjänstgöring, som han avslutade som stabsredaktör inom det psykologiska försvaret.

Till psykförsvaret och tiden i ToPF i södra Sverige

Det visade sig att mitt arbete till försvar av Sydvietnams frihet åren 1965 till 1975 skulle få betydelse för min fortsatta militära tjänstgöring. Först blev det dock en repetitionsövning vid Livregementets grenadjärer (I 3) i Örebro under maj månad 1973.

I början av 1970-talet kom jag i kontakt med major Anders Franchell, som hade en ledande ställning inom det militära psykologiska försvaret. Det ledde till att jag enligt ett förordnande den 1 februari 1975 blev stabsredaktör med placering vid det psykologiska försvaret (tjänstegrupp 2 det vill säga motsvarande fänrik, löjtnant eller kapten). I maj-juni 1975 genomgick jag en repetitionsövning (krigsförbandsövning) i Stockholm.

Jag sökte också medlemskap i ett förbund, som verkade för vidareutbildning av krigsplacerad personal inom det psykologiska försvaret. Sedan mitten av 1960-talet fanns det en organisation med detta syfte inom den militära informationstjänsten. År 1964 hade Sveriges Militära Psykförsvarsförening (SMIPS) bildats främst på initiativ av majorerna Anders Franchell och Bertil Flodin. SMIPS ingick liksom Fältartisterna i Personaltjänstförbundet (FPF), som verkade i den frivilliga befälsutbildningsverksamheten.

Under tiden visade det sig att SMIPS tilldelades allt för små medel för att kunna arbeta effektivt. Det ledde till att organisationen lämnade FPF och gick med i Centralförbundet för befälsutbildning (CFB). Vid årsstämman 1979 ändrades namnet till Totalförsvarets Psykförsvarsförbund (ToPF). Orsaken till namnändringen var bland annat att man i ökande utsträckning fick medlemmar, som hade uppgifter på andra områden än den militära informationstjänsten. Det var i samband med namnbytet, som jag blev medlem i den regionala föreningen ToPF i södra Sverige (förbundet hade fem regionala föreningar i stort sett efter dåvarande milo-indelning).

Stadgar för ToPF i södra Sverige antogs vid bildandet i november 1979 och enligt stadgarna skull verksamheten omfatta försvarsupplysning samt rekrytering och utbildning av frivillig personal ingående i totalförsvaret.

Förutom Försvarsstabens informationsavdelning engagerade sig även Beredskapsnämnden för psykologiskt försvar, som senare bytte namn till Styrelsen för psykologiskt försvar (SPF). Per Landahl, SPF:s kanslichef medverkade regelbundet vid förbundets möten. Landahl var också under en tid efter sin avgång med pension ordförande i ToPF. Bland de uppgifter som SPF hade kan nämnas informationsforskning och upplysning i krislägen. Styrelsen ansvarade också för de opinionsundersökningar som gjordes för att mäta svenskarnas försvarsvilja och inställning till väpnat försvar av Sverige.

Vid slutet av 1970-talet och under 1980-talet var förbundets huvuduppgift att se till att medlemmarnas kunskaper bibehölls framför allt då press- och informationsofficerare, det vill säga stabsredaktörer. När det under åren kom allt fler medlemmar utan anknytning till det militära tillkom en ny uppgift för förbundet: att rekrytera, informera och utbilda frivilliga för totalförsvarets beredskaps- och krigsorganisation inom ramen för det psykologiska försvarets verksamhetsområden. Därmed skulle medlemmarna kunna krigsplaceras även under det civila försvaret som till exempel informationsbefäl.

TEXAS SENATOR TED CRUZ WARNS: CHINA GREATEST THREAT

April 11, 2019

Washington Times on April 10, 2019, reported on a speech by Ted Cruz at a conference of the Committee on the Present Danger-China in which he warned that China is the greatest threat. Excerpts below:

Sen. Ted Cruz warned…that the United States is facing “perilous times” due to the growing threat from communist China.

“China is in my view the greatest long-term geopolitical risk to the United States,” the Texas Republican told a conference of China watchers hosted by the Committee on the Present Danger-China. “They are the greatest risk militarily, they are the greatest risk economically, and they are the greatest risk in expanding their world influence and seeking to constrain our own.”

He outlined three tools that can “combat the geopolitical and geomilitary threat that we face.”

They include exposing Chinese activities and abuses such as cyberattacks, human rights violations and other nefarious activities of the Beijing government.

“One tool is simply the light of transparency,” he said. “History teaches us something: Dictatorships fear truth. Tyrannies and dictatorships always appear stronger than they are until they crumble.”

The senator criticized pro-Beijing officials in government and the news media for perpetuating communist rule in China. “The apologists for the Chinese communists we have in the media, that we have, sadly, in Congress are not advancing the cause of peace, are not advancing the cause of human rights, they are not advancing the cause of truth by hiding the truth,” he said.

A second way to confront China is through building up American military power. The senator praised President Trump for the largest military buildup since the Reagan era.

China has invested billions of dollars in building up formidable military forces at the same time the Obama administration for eight years weakened “our ability to defend ourselves,” Mr. Cruz said. “It is critical that we are turning that around.”

Mr. Cruz took credit for helping pass recent legislation requiring the Pentagon to build space-based missile defense interceptors.

“The threat in space is profound. Our vulnerability in space is profound,” he said. “The Chinese are investing billions in offensive weaponry in space.”

Last, Mr. Cruz urged shutting down Chinese influence operations and technology theft networks inside the United States.

Chinese government-run Confucius Institutes are being used for spying and influence operations and must be countered, he argued. “Confucius Institutes far too often have served as bases for active and aggressive espionage,” Mr. Cruz said. “We need to guard ourselves at home.”

Mr. Cruz said in the end he believes the United States can neutralize the threat from China the way Reagan did to the Soviets in demanding that the Berlin Wall be torn down. “Truth is stronger than lies, and light is stronger than darkness,” he said.

Comment: Senator Cruz in his comments should perhaps also have brought up a recent aggressive move by the regime in Beijing. China seeks to corner the market in building emerging high-speed, next-generation 5G telecommunications networks around the world

U.S. and allied telecommunications companies are lagging behind Chinese companies that are receiving $180 billion in investment over five years for the high-speed networks that require larger numbers of cellular hardware than current systems. Adopting Chinese standards for 5G as international norms will undermine U.S. defense capabilities.

The massive number of connected devices in the 5G system will increase the vulnerability to cyberattacks and espionage. Larger volumes of data being transferred also will complicate network and information security and make it more difficult to detect malicious traffic on computer networks.

It is time that the United States and allies adopt the grand strategy of President Ronald Reagan: We win, they loose.

SOVIET WAR CRIMES SUSPECTS SENTENCED IN LITHUANIA

March 28, 2019

Washington Times on March 27, 2019, reported that a Lithuanian court had found the last Soviet Defense Minister Dmitry Yazov in absentia guilty of war crimes. Excerpts below:

A Lithuanian court on March 27, 2019,found the Soviet Union’s last defense minister guilty of war crimes for his role in a violent crackdown on the Baltic country’s independence move 28 years ago.

The Vilnius Regional Court sentenced 94-year-old Dmitry Yazov in absentia to 10 years in prison.

He and 66 other Soviet-era officials were on trial for the violence that left 14 people dead and hundreds injured when Soviet troops stormed a television tower and an adjacent building in Vilnius on Jan. 13, 1991.

The trial began in 2016. Only two defendants were present in court with most of the others being in Russia, which has refused to hand them over. Those present had pleaded not guilty.

The verdict comes at a time of growing military activity in the Baltic Sea region…

Lithuania and the two other Baltic countries fear that after Russia’s military involvement in Georgia and Ukraine, other former Soviet republics could be next.

The assault on the television facilities was the deadliest Soviet action to crush secessionist movements in the Baltics.

RFE/RL provided further information on the sentences. Excerpts below:

In a March 27, 2019, ruling, the Vilnius Regional Court sentenced former Soviet Defense Minister Dmitry Yazov in absentia to 10 years in prison. Former KGB officer Mikhail Golovatov was sentenced in absentia to 12 years in prison.

Yazov and Golovatov were the most prominent of 67 defendants in the trial over the momentous events that unfolded in Vilnius in January 1991, when the Soviet Union’s government tried to halt the country’s collapse by cracking down on the first republic to declare independence.

The verdicts followed three years of proceedings focusing on the deaths of 14 people killed by the Soviet Army in the Lithuanian capital that month.

Lithuanian prosecutors say all but one of the victims died during the storming of the state television headquarters and TV tower by Soviet paratroopers on January 13, 1991. More than 700 other people were wounded.

Judge Ainora Maceviciene sentenced the other 64 defendants — all citizens of Russia, Belarus, and Ukraine — to prison terms ranging from four to 12 years. All but two were sentenced in absentia.

Two former Soviet military officers who were present at the trial, Russian citizens Gennady Ivanov and Yury Mel, were present at the trial, were sentenced to four and seven years in prison respectively.

Yazov, now 94 years old, was the last marshal of the Soviet Union and Soviet defense minister in 1987-1991. He is one of two remaining members of a group of plotters who tried to take over the disintegrating Soviet Union in 1991 by sidelining its leader, Mikhail Gorbachev, in an attempted coup that collapsed after three days in August 2, 1991.

Golovatov, 69, a retired colonel, was the commander of the KGB military unit known as Alpha Group or Spetsnaz in 1991-92. The group under his command took part in the 1991 crackdown in Vilnius.

In March 1990, Lithuania became the first of the 15 Soviet republics to declare independence.

Comment: The trial against the Soviet suspects of war crimes in Lithuania has been conducted in a typical Western media shadow. Mainstream media seems intent on having readers forget about crimes of communism that caused the death of an estimated 200 million people since the Bolshevik coup d’etat in Russia in 1917. Other former Soviet occupied countries should follow Lithuania in bringing Soviet suspects of war crimes to justice.

PRESIDENT TRUMP AND CHANCELLOR MERKEL SPEAK ON UKRAINE

March 24, 2019

Radio Free Europe Radio Liberty on March 23, 2019, reported that President Trump and Chancellor Merkel have spoken via telephone on Ukraine and NATO during Trump’s weekend stay at Mar-a-Lago resort in Palm Beach, Florida. Excerpts below:

A senior [American] administration official said the conversation covered funding for the NATO alliance.

German government spokesman Steffen Seibert said the conversation also covered issues related to Ukraine without being specific.

Ukrainian government forces have been fighting against Russia-backed separatists in Ukraine’s eastern regions of Donetsk and Luhansk since April 2014 in a conflict that has killed some 13,000 people — a quarter of them civilians.

Moscow has also seized and annexed Ukraine’s Crimea region…

Comment: Much of the focus of the U.S. administration has since 2017 been on East Asia and the Middle East. The contact between Trump and Merkel is a sign that Ukraine will get more attention during 2019. Merkel’s peace initiatives have not been successful. The conflict in eastern Ukraine is continuing. Ukraine needs stronger support from both the United States and EU. Ukrainians must feel secure that the West is really supportive of their efforts to join the family of democratic nations and escape from the grip of Russia.

IS RUSSIA ON ITS KNEES?

March 23, 2019

Washington Times on March 22, 2019 published an AP interview with Ukraine’s Foreign Minister Pavlo Klimkin on his country’s road towards taking its place among Western European democracies. Excerpts below:

…Foreign Minister Pavlo Klimkin insisted that Ukraine has Russia on its knees, and that his country is making good progress toward taking its place among Western European democracies.

“Ukrainian society five years after Maidan is ripe enough … to fight for an independent democratic and European country, and for me part of this future is of course our membership in the European Union, in NATO,” he said.

“Ukraine is already part of the trans-Atlantic community. It should formally become part of this trans-Atlantic community.”

Klimkin [said] the standoff [with Russia] is hurting Moscow more than Kiev.

“Look at the economic development in Russia: no growth. Look at their societal development. Look at Russian demography. Russia is going nowhere under current conditions. And I believe that quite soon the Russian leadership will have simply to face this fact.”

“We have to do better with reforms here in the country. We have to do better with transforming our justice system. We have to do better with tackling corruption,” he said. “But if you … compare current Ukraine with Ukraine five years ago, right after Maidan, it’s completely a different country.”

“I’m not saying [that EU and NATO membership] will come tomorrow or after tomorrow. We have to be honest. It’s not a short-term exercise, but it will come,” he said.

“Ukrainians will not tolerate any kind of back off or veering off from this fundamental force.”

Comment: On March 31 Ukrainians will elect a president. Most likely there will be a second round in April with good chances for President Petro Poroshenko to be re-elected.

The war in the east with Russia is taking its toll and it is important that the United States supplies Ukraine with more defensive weapons. The European Union should step up negotiations with Ukraine for EU membership.

Russia is one of the three empires presently challenging the West. The loss of much of the influence in Ukraine has been a serious setback for Russia. With a new Ukrainian administration from April 2019 a more forward policy for the West on Ukraine is necessary when it comes to integrating Ukraine in the family of Western democracies.

MIKE POMPEO OPPOSES RUSSIAN ENERGY PIPELINE IN THE BALTIC SEA

February 13, 2019

Washington Free Beacon on February 12, 2019, reported on Mike Pompeo, joining with Poland in opposing the Russian energy pipeline Nord Stram 2. He said that the pipeline was a national security threat. Excerpts below:

Pompeo had arrived in Warsaw to [lead] a ….forum on the Middle East and, in particular, Iran’s increasingly provocative moves in the region, with dozens of international leaders….

As Pompeo in the coming days addresses issues ranging from Iran’s continued pursuit of nuclear technology to the issue of bolstering NATO allies, it is more than likely the issue of Nord Stream 2 will be at the forefront of the conversation, both in official and unofficial channels.

“Like Poland, the United States continues to oppose strongly the implementation of Russia’s proposed Nord Stream 2 pipeline,” the State Department informed reporters…as Pompeo touched down in Warsaw to kick off the meetings.
Pompeo lauded Poland for its stance opposing the Russian pipeline, both in public comments and through State Department officials.

“We congratulate Poland for its impressive efforts to expand and diversify its sources of energy, including by investing in infrastructure such as a new liquefied natural gas (LNG) terminal in northwestern Poland, where the first U.S. shipment arrived in June 2017,” the State Department said. “There is enormous potential for greater energy cooperation between Poland and the United States, including in renewables and nuclear power.”

Hungarian Foreign Minister Peter Szijjarto, following private meetings with Pompeo february 11, appeared convinced by the administration’s position.

“When it comes to Russia, I told the secretary as well that there’s an enormous hypocrisy and political correctness in the European political arena in this regard,” Szijjarto said during a joint press conference Monday. “Because look, it’s not the Hungarian and it’s not the Central European energy companies which are preparing and building Nord Stream 2 together with Gazprom. It was not the Hungarian prime minister to be invited as a superstar at the St. Petersburg International Economic Forum, but it was the French president. It was not the leaders of the Hungarian energy companies to sit together on the stage with President Putin on the last Russian energy week, but the CEOs of the biggest Western European energy companies.”

“Look at the trade figures,” he said. “Look at the trade figures between the Western European countries and Russia, and you will see that we are, let’s say, fed up in a legitimate way that you usually portray us as having a tight relationship to Russia.”

EU PLANS TO BYPASS US IRAN SANCTIONS

January 31, 2019

The European Union is considering according to Euronews in January 2019 how it could step up plans to circumvent President Trump’s Iran sanctions. Excerpts below:

The EU Foreign Affairs Council (FAC) met in Brussels to examine options around what is known as a Special Purpose Vehicle [SPV]. This arrangement would function as a workaround to help European companies continue to do business with Tehran.

President Donald Trump in 2018 withdrew the US from an international 2015 deal to control Iran’s nuclear ambitions, formally known as the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action.

The Trump administration warned that the deal did not prevent Iran from finding ways to develop nuclear weapons.

Comment: If the EU goes forward and decides to bypass the American sanctions against Iran it would endanger Western unity in face of Iran support of terrorism. Such a decision would also increase the threat to Israel.

DMYTRO DONTSOV AND SWEDEN

January 25, 2019

Dmytro Dontsov, philosopher, author, and politician played an important role in the Ukrainian independence movement in the beginning of the twentieth century. It was when he lived in Berlin for several years during the First World War he turned to history to seek ideas for his writings. In 1916 he published a book on the Swedish-Ukrainian alliance against Moscow in the Great Northern War (1700-1721). He concentrated on the strategic and geopolitical lessons of the Swedish-Ukrainan struggle against Muscovy. Dontsov called for a reevaluation of the campaign of King Charles XII of Sweden (1682-1718) and Ukrainian Hetman Ivan Mazepa (1639-1709). He regarded the enterprise as a geopolitically necessary act of self-defense against Muscovite barbarism. In the case of Sweden it was certainly self-defense as it had in 1700 been attacked by an alliance of states including Russia. In the case of Ukraine it was not only a defensive war, it was also a liberation war.

In the spring of 1916 the German Foreign Office, on suggestion of with the the military leadershi (then headed by General Erich Ludendorff), approved the idea of the “League of Russia’s Foreign Peoples” (die Liga der Fremdvölker Russlands, LFR), which sought representation of the Lithuanians, Belorussians, Poles, Finns, Ukrainians, Georgians, Muslims, and Jews of Russia.

In one of the sources of this short article is claimed that Dontsov during 1916 visited Sweden. If he did visit it might have been to meet Rudolf Kjellén, Swedish geopolitician and political science professor in Uppsala. Kjellén was widely read in Germany and most of his books had been translated into German. The Swedish founder of the science of geopolitics was a critic of tsarist Russia and later of the Bolshevik regime of Lenin.

The league was coordinated from Berlin. An important center for its activities was the German embassy in Bern, Switzerland. The apartment of Dr. Hermann Gummerus (a prominent Finnish freedom fighter) was used as headquarters. Bern in Switzerland was chosen because it was a rather secure place for anti-Russian activities. Bolshevik subversives, of which Vladimir I. Lenin was the most prominent, also chose neutral Switzerland as home base för their activities.

The LFR’s first move was to issue an appeal to American President Woodrow Wilson. He was described as an ardent defender of humanity and justice.the most ardent defender of humanity and justice by the League.

For more information on the League see Seppo Zetterberg, ”Die Liga der Fremdvölker Russlands, 1916-1918: Ein beitrag zu Deutschlands antirussischen Propagandakrieg unter den Fremdvölkern im Ersten Weltkrieg, Helsinki: Finska Historiska Samfundet,1978.

After Berlin Dontsov moved to Kyiv. The Ukrainan State of Hetman Pavlo Skoropadsky was formed on April 29, 1918. During the summer and fall of 1918, the hetman and the Germans placed Dontsov in charge of the Ukrainization efforts. Although he later decried Soviet Ukrainization as a cynical ploy, Dontsov worked intensely to promote Ukrainian national consciousness through schools, newspapers, and government under the Hetmanate.

On May 24 Dontsov was appointed director of the Ukrainian State’s Ukrainian Telegraph Agency (UTA) and press bureau. In reality UTA and the press bureau was overseeing the information activities of the Ukrainian State. Skoropadsky regularly consulted with Dontsov concerning policy. The hetman wanted efforts to rally the peasants for the state, and Dontsov was put in charge. Hoping to reach the latter, the Hetman ordered Dontsov to develop a publication to rally the peasantry around the Ukrainian Stae. The result was Selianske slovo (The Village Word) which spread the information of the government in the countryside. The goal was to build a broad coalition of conservative farmers, landowners, and intellectuals.

In October 1918 the Government of the Ukrainian State wanted to establish permanent diplomatic relations between of Sweden and the Ukrainian State. The purpose was to establish friendly connections and mutual understanding between the two nations. A diplomatic mission was sent to Scandinavia headed by Borys Bazhenov.

Bazhenov settled down in the “The Grand Hotel” at Södra Blasieholmshamnen, 8. Later the Mission was located in the Hotel Regina on Drottninggatan 42-44 in Stockholm.

In January 1919 Kostyantyn Losskyi was appointed head of the Mission. When he arrived in Stockholm the Mission relocated to Drottninggatan 83 and the head of the Mission lived in an apartment on Karlbergsvägen 43B. From October 1, 1919 to February 1920, this was also the office of the Mission.

Further reading

Trevor Erlacher,“The Götterdämmerung of Ukraїnophilia: Ukrainian Nationalism and the Entangled Eastern Front, 1914-1921,” Carolina Seminar sponsored by the University of North Carolina Center for Slavic, Eurasian, and East European Studies, Chapel Hill, NC, December 8, 2016.

“The Furies of Nationalism: Dmytro Dontsov, the Ukrainian Idea, and Europe’s Twentieth Century” (forthcoming). Looking at the biography of Dmytro Dontsov (1883-1973), Trevor Erlacher explores the global and transnational dimensions, ideological development and cultural expression of Ukrainian integral nationalism from its origins to post-Communist Ukraine.