Archive for the ‘ANTICOMMUNISM’ Category

FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. STAND WITH HONGKONG

October 7, 2019

It could be Hongkong today and the world tomorrow.

freedomhongkong.org is an initiative by Hongkong freedom fighters to launch various advertisment campaigns in support of the Hongkong freedom struggle starting from the 2019 G20 Osaka summit in June.

The demands of Freedom Hongkong are:

1. Complete withdrawal of the extradition bill;
2. Retraction of the characterisation of any anti-extradition protest as a riot;
3. Amnesty of all protesters in relation to the anti-extradition protests;
4. Establishment of an independent commission of inquiry to inquire into alleged police brutality; and
5. Immediate implementation of dual universal suffrage for Legislative Council and Chief Executive elections.

These are modest demands in light of the Chinese Communist Party’s (CCP) tearing apart of Hongkong.

In spite of the existing treaty Beijing is de facto running the city. CCP has for years been infiltrating the political and business sectors of Hongkong. This and other forms of subversion have undermined institutions and eroded Hongkonger’s freedom.

Watch Freedom Hongkong’s advertisments on You Tube and follow freedomhongkong.org on the web.

CHINA GLOBAL STRATEGY TARGETING AMERICAN ECONOMY

September 7, 2019

Ret. USAF Brigadier General Robert Spalding in a June 2019 interview on radio warned that the geopolitical China threat to the United States had not been adressed strategically. Spalding has served at the White House as the Senior Director for Strategic Planning at the National Security Council, Washington D.C.:

China wages economic warfare against the U.S, said Spalding. It supports — and enriches itself off of — America’s competitors in Asia and the Middle East.

To approach this effectively the United States must work with its allies. In the Middle East with the Saudis and other Arab states and in Asia with mainly Japan and South Korea.

Spalding further said that in each of these regions, the partners there have to step up. America must reinvest in the country and grow the economy.

The focus has to be on deterrence and the growth of economy. Don’t spend all your money on weapons and focus on growing your economy. Military capacity cannot be separated from economic capacity, the brigadier general continued.

The United States must build and rebuild in the field of infrastructure and things that are actually growing the economy. If you don’t have a strong economy, it doesn’t matter, because you’re not going to be able to pay for the things you need to secure yourself.

When China entered the WTO, America closed 78,000 factories. 5.4 million people were put out of work. We closed ship-building facilities. We closed so much of our manufacturing capability that today we’re heavily reliant on the Chinese to provide the things we need to fight.

Spalding also said that the Chinese have managed to buy global ports and buying most of the global shipping — control the logistics. So think about that $800 billion defense budget we spend, and then all the money we’re spending to move and ship personnel and supplies all over the world, and you realize that the Chinese are making enormous sums out of what we do on a day-to-day basis. This is what they’ve built.

Spalding further highlighted China’s procurement of influence via financial relationship with America’s academia, businesses, entertainment and news media companies, non-profits and think tanks, and politicians.

The Chinese have studied the United States and the competition we had with the Soviet Union. They realized that if we ever became focused on their activities, then that would be tough for them because they relied on our openness in order to go after us. So they were essentially slowly eroding our personal freedoms through their economic and financial interaction with the country.

A large part of America’s elites have essentially aligned themselves — corporate interests, academia, politics, law firms, think tanks — with the Chinese Communist Party. The party knew that if it could go on to pursue that they could continue to slowly erode our competitive edge.

In essence, they want us to spend as much money as we can on defense, because that is not the area where they want to compete with us, Spalding warned. “They want us to bankrupt ourselves. That’s the goal.

President Donald Trump had in Spalding’s view reversed the status quo of America’s approach towards China set by his presidential predecessors. In 2017, the president basically said, ‘Enough is enough.’

They use the profits they make off the dealings with America to help the Iranians, to help the North Koreans, to help the Russians, both in a technological sense and economic sense,” concluded Spalding. He described Trump’s “decoupling” of America from dependence on Chinese exports and logistic as a means to reinforce America’s global positioning. China is aiding and abetting the countries that we try to put sanctions on. Whether or not they’re directly involved in the Iranians placing mines on tankers in the Persian Gulf, they’re complicit in that they’re enabling the Iranians to have the resources that enable them to do these things.

CHINA’S KILLING MACHINE – ORGAN-HARVESTING BY EXECUTION

July 30, 2019

New York Post on June 1, 2019, published an article by US China expert Steven W. Mosher on the brutal China organ harvesting for profit. The world is beginning to understand that transplants in China are costing human lives – every time. Excerpts below:

Zheng Qiaozhi — we will call him George — still has nightmares. He was interning at China’s Shenyang Army General Hospital when he was drafted to be part of an organ-harvesting team.

The prisoner was brought in, tied hand and foot, but very much alive. The army doctor in charge sliced him open from chest to belly button and exposed his two kidneys. “Cut the veins and arteries,” he told his shocked intern. George did as he was told. Blood spurted everywhere.

The kidneys were placed in an organ-transplant container.

Then the doctor ordered George to remove the man’s eyeballs. Hearing that, the dying prisoner gave him a look of sheer terror, and George froze. “I can’t do it,” he told the doctor, who then quickly scooped out the man’s eyeballs himself.

George was so unnerved by what he had seen that he soon quit his job at the hospital and returned home. Later, afraid that he might be the next victim of China’s forced organ-transplant business, he fled to Canada and assumed a new identity.

First-person accounts like George’s are understandably rare.

Experts estimate that between 60,000 and 100,000 organs are transplanted annually in China. Multiply that number times the cost of a liver transplant ($170,000) or a kidney transplant ($130,000), and the result is an eye-popping $10 billion to 20 billion.

…experts like Ethan Gutmann, author of several books on the subject, believe that the vast majority [of organs] obtained by executing prisoners of conscience.
One particularly rich source of fresh organs for China’s transplant industry in recent years has been the Falun Gong, which was declared a heretical Buddhist sect in 1999 by then-Party Secretary Jiang Zemin.

The Muslim minorities of China’s far west are apparently next in line. Over the past couple of years, between one to three million Uighur and Kazakh men have been arrested and sent to concentration camps — Beijing calls them “vocational training centers” — in the region.

Tellingly, all these prisoners of conscience not only had their blood drawn upon entry but also had their organs examined, presumably so they could be more quickly matched with those willing to pay for them.

All this suggests that assembly-line harvesting of Uighur, Kazakh and Tibetan organs is already getting underway.

Despite China’s claims to the contrary, its transplant business is booming. And, thanks to a Western technology called ECMO — extracorporeal membrane oxygenation — it has become much, much more lucrative.

Twenty years ago, it was only possible to successfully harvest an organ or two — two kidneys, say, or a heart — from a transplant victim. The other organs, such as the lungs and liver, had to be discarded because they had been deprived of oxygen too long to be usable.

Now, the victims are put on an ECMO machine, which serves as an artificial heart and lung and keeps every last organ fresh enough to be harvested. Before ECMO, a victim’s few salvageable organs were worth maybe $250,000. Now, with ECMO, every organ can be harvested — even the skin — and the victim is easily worth two or three times as much. ECMO, which has saved countless lives in the West, has had the opposite effect in China: It has accelerated the killing of innocent people.

Proof that the slaughter of “donors” continues is revealed by the country’s amazingly short wait times for organs. In normal countries, sick people can wait for many months or years for an organ to become available.

Only in China do organ tourists receive a kidney, heart or liver transplant within days or weeks of arriving. In fact, in some cases patients have reported that their transplant surgeries were scheduled before they even arrived in China — something that could only happen as a result of forced organ harvesting.

The world is beginning to wake up to the fact that virtually every organ transplant in China costs the life of an innocent human being.

China’s organ-transplant assembly line is not only murder for hire but may turn out to be a kind of genocide as well.

Steven W. Mosher is the president of the Population Research Institute and the author of “Bully of Asia: Why China’s Dream is the New Threat to World Order,” out now.

COMMUNISM’S DEATH TOLL

July 28, 2019

Foundation for Economic Education’s ”FEE Daily” on July 28, 2019, published an article on Ukraine’s legislation making natioinal socialism and communism legally synonymous. Below is an excerpt from the article:

The Black Book of Communism, an international bestseller, reveals that the handiwork of twentieth-century communists more than matched the Nazis. In fact, a glance at the figures shows the communist death toll dwarfs the bloody work of the Nazis: In China, 65 million dead; in the Soviet Union, nearly 20 million; Vietnam, 1 million; Cambodia, 2 million. North Korea is 2 million and counting. Chalk up a few million more with Eastern Europe (1 million), Africa (1.7 million), and Afghanistan (1.5 million).

The different perceptions of the horrors of Nazi Germany to horrors of twentieth-century communism have long been a source of frustration for many who see cognitive dissonance in how the hammer-and-sickle is treated compared to the Swastika.

For lawmakers in Ukraine, this cognitive dissonance was apparently more than they could bear. In 2015, legislation was passed to make Nazism and communism legally synonymous.

In 2019, that law was upheld by a Ukrainian court.

“The communist regime, like the Nazi regime, inflicted irreparable damages to human rights because during its existence, it had total control over society and politically motivated persecutions and repressions, violated its international obligations, and its own constitutions and laws,” the court declared, in a ruling published on its website.

The ruling…paves the way for the removal of most of the remaining communist monuments and landmarks bearing Soviet names in Ukraine. It also prohibits the use of Nazi and communist symbols.

The Starvation of Ukraine

That communism is a touchy subject in Ukraine should come as no surprise. As the Pulitzer Prize-winning author Anne Applebaum chronicled in her 2017 book Red Famine: Stalin’s War on Ukraine, nearly 4 million Ukrainians died from starvation in the Soviet Union between 1931 and 1934. Applebaum makes is quite clear how this happened.

“The Soviet Union’s disastrous decision to force peasants to give up their land and join collective farms; the eviction of ‘kulaks,’ the wealthier peasants, from their homes; the chaos that followed,” she writes, “all [was] ultimately the responsibility of Joseph Stalin, the General Secretary of the Soviet Communist Party.”

Millions of people starving is horrifying. What’s more terrifying is that this policy was not accidental.

As late as the summer of 1932 mass starvation appeared avoidable, Applebaum writes. The Soviets could have asked for international aid, as they had in previous famines. It could have stopped exporting grain or halted grain requisitions. Party leaders chose not to.

Instead, in the autumn of 1932, the Soviet Politburo, the elite leadership of the Soviet Communist Party, took a series of decisions that widened and deepened the famine in the Ukrainian countryside and at the same time prevented peasants from leaving the republic in search of food. At the height of the crisis, organized teams of policemen and party activists, motivated by hunger, fear, and a decade of hateful and conspiratorial rhetoric, entered peasant households and took everything edible: potatoes, beets, squash, beans, peas, anything in the oven and anything in the cupboard, farm animals and pets.

As a result, 3.9 million Ukrainians died. In light of these horrors, it’s no surprise that many in Ukraine, which suffered under Nazi rule the following decade, see little difference between the collective atrocities of the Nazis and the collective atrocities of the communists.

TEXAS SENATOR TED CRUZ WARNS: CHINA GREATEST THREAT

April 11, 2019

Washington Times on April 10, 2019, reported on a speech by Ted Cruz at a conference of the Committee on the Present Danger-China in which he warned that China is the greatest threat. Excerpts below:

Sen. Ted Cruz warned…that the United States is facing “perilous times” due to the growing threat from communist China.

“China is in my view the greatest long-term geopolitical risk to the United States,” the Texas Republican told a conference of China watchers hosted by the Committee on the Present Danger-China. “They are the greatest risk militarily, they are the greatest risk economically, and they are the greatest risk in expanding their world influence and seeking to constrain our own.”

He outlined three tools that can “combat the geopolitical and geomilitary threat that we face.”

They include exposing Chinese activities and abuses such as cyberattacks, human rights violations and other nefarious activities of the Beijing government.

“One tool is simply the light of transparency,” he said. “History teaches us something: Dictatorships fear truth. Tyrannies and dictatorships always appear stronger than they are until they crumble.”

The senator criticized pro-Beijing officials in government and the news media for perpetuating communist rule in China. “The apologists for the Chinese communists we have in the media, that we have, sadly, in Congress are not advancing the cause of peace, are not advancing the cause of human rights, they are not advancing the cause of truth by hiding the truth,” he said.

A second way to confront China is through building up American military power. The senator praised President Trump for the largest military buildup since the Reagan era.

China has invested billions of dollars in building up formidable military forces at the same time the Obama administration for eight years weakened “our ability to defend ourselves,” Mr. Cruz said. “It is critical that we are turning that around.”

Mr. Cruz took credit for helping pass recent legislation requiring the Pentagon to build space-based missile defense interceptors.

“The threat in space is profound. Our vulnerability in space is profound,” he said. “The Chinese are investing billions in offensive weaponry in space.”

Last, Mr. Cruz urged shutting down Chinese influence operations and technology theft networks inside the United States.

Chinese government-run Confucius Institutes are being used for spying and influence operations and must be countered, he argued. “Confucius Institutes far too often have served as bases for active and aggressive espionage,” Mr. Cruz said. “We need to guard ourselves at home.”

Mr. Cruz said in the end he believes the United States can neutralize the threat from China the way Reagan did to the Soviets in demanding that the Berlin Wall be torn down. “Truth is stronger than lies, and light is stronger than darkness,” he said.

Comment: Senator Cruz in his comments should perhaps also have brought up a recent aggressive move by the regime in Beijing. China seeks to corner the market in building emerging high-speed, next-generation 5G telecommunications networks around the world

U.S. and allied telecommunications companies are lagging behind Chinese companies that are receiving $180 billion in investment over five years for the high-speed networks that require larger numbers of cellular hardware than current systems. Adopting Chinese standards for 5G as international norms will undermine U.S. defense capabilities.

The massive number of connected devices in the 5G system will increase the vulnerability to cyberattacks and espionage. Larger volumes of data being transferred also will complicate network and information security and make it more difficult to detect malicious traffic on computer networks.

It is time that the United States and allies adopt the grand strategy of President Ronald Reagan: We win, they loose.

SOVIET WAR CRIMES SUSPECTS SENTENCED IN LITHUANIA

March 28, 2019

Washington Times on March 27, 2019, reported that a Lithuanian court had found the last Soviet Defense Minister Dmitry Yazov in absentia guilty of war crimes. Excerpts below:

A Lithuanian court on March 27, 2019,found the Soviet Union’s last defense minister guilty of war crimes for his role in a violent crackdown on the Baltic country’s independence move 28 years ago.

The Vilnius Regional Court sentenced 94-year-old Dmitry Yazov in absentia to 10 years in prison.

He and 66 other Soviet-era officials were on trial for the violence that left 14 people dead and hundreds injured when Soviet troops stormed a television tower and an adjacent building in Vilnius on Jan. 13, 1991.

The trial began in 2016. Only two defendants were present in court with most of the others being in Russia, which has refused to hand them over. Those present had pleaded not guilty.

The verdict comes at a time of growing military activity in the Baltic Sea region…

Lithuania and the two other Baltic countries fear that after Russia’s military involvement in Georgia and Ukraine, other former Soviet republics could be next.

The assault on the television facilities was the deadliest Soviet action to crush secessionist movements in the Baltics.

RFE/RL provided further information on the sentences. Excerpts below:

In a March 27, 2019, ruling, the Vilnius Regional Court sentenced former Soviet Defense Minister Dmitry Yazov in absentia to 10 years in prison. Former KGB officer Mikhail Golovatov was sentenced in absentia to 12 years in prison.

Yazov and Golovatov were the most prominent of 67 defendants in the trial over the momentous events that unfolded in Vilnius in January 1991, when the Soviet Union’s government tried to halt the country’s collapse by cracking down on the first republic to declare independence.

The verdicts followed three years of proceedings focusing on the deaths of 14 people killed by the Soviet Army in the Lithuanian capital that month.

Lithuanian prosecutors say all but one of the victims died during the storming of the state television headquarters and TV tower by Soviet paratroopers on January 13, 1991. More than 700 other people were wounded.

Judge Ainora Maceviciene sentenced the other 64 defendants — all citizens of Russia, Belarus, and Ukraine — to prison terms ranging from four to 12 years. All but two were sentenced in absentia.

Two former Soviet military officers who were present at the trial, Russian citizens Gennady Ivanov and Yury Mel, were present at the trial, were sentenced to four and seven years in prison respectively.

Yazov, now 94 years old, was the last marshal of the Soviet Union and Soviet defense minister in 1987-1991. He is one of two remaining members of a group of plotters who tried to take over the disintegrating Soviet Union in 1991 by sidelining its leader, Mikhail Gorbachev, in an attempted coup that collapsed after three days in August 2, 1991.

Golovatov, 69, a retired colonel, was the commander of the KGB military unit known as Alpha Group or Spetsnaz in 1991-92. The group under his command took part in the 1991 crackdown in Vilnius.

In March 1990, Lithuania became the first of the 15 Soviet republics to declare independence.

Comment: The trial against the Soviet suspects of war crimes in Lithuania has been conducted in a typical Western media shadow. Mainstream media seems intent on having readers forget about crimes of communism that caused the death of an estimated 200 million people since the Bolshevik coup d’etat in Russia in 1917. Other former Soviet occupied countries should follow Lithuania in bringing Soviet suspects of war crimes to justice.

DMYTRO DONTSOV AND SWEDEN

January 25, 2019

Dmytro Dontsov, philosopher, author, and politician played an important role in the Ukrainian independence movement in the beginning of the twentieth century. It was when he lived in Berlin for several years during the First World War he turned to history to seek ideas for his writings. In 1916 he published a book on the Swedish-Ukrainian alliance against Moscow in the Great Northern War (1700-1721). He concentrated on the strategic and geopolitical lessons of the Swedish-Ukrainan struggle against Muscovy. Dontsov called for a reevaluation of the campaign of King Charles XII of Sweden (1682-1718) and Ukrainian Hetman Ivan Mazepa (1639-1709). He regarded the enterprise as a geopolitically necessary act of self-defense against Muscovite barbarism. In the case of Sweden it was certainly self-defense as it had in 1700 been attacked by an alliance of states including Russia. In the case of Ukraine it was not only a defensive war, it was also a liberation war.

In the spring of 1916 the German Foreign Office, on suggestion of with the the military leadershi (then headed by General Erich Ludendorff), approved the idea of the “League of Russia’s Foreign Peoples” (die Liga der Fremdvölker Russlands, LFR), which sought representation of the Lithuanians, Belorussians, Poles, Finns, Ukrainians, Georgians, Muslims, and Jews of Russia.

In one of the sources of this short article is claimed that Dontsov during 1916 visited Sweden. If he did visit it might have been to meet Rudolf Kjellén, Swedish geopolitician and political science professor in Uppsala. Kjellén was widely read in Germany and most of his books had been translated into German. The Swedish founder of the science of geopolitics was a critic of tsarist Russia and later of the Bolshevik regime of Lenin.

The league was coordinated from Berlin. An important center for its activities was the German embassy in Bern, Switzerland. The apartment of Dr. Hermann Gummerus (a prominent Finnish freedom fighter) was used as headquarters. Bern in Switzerland was chosen because it was a rather secure place for anti-Russian activities. Bolshevik subversives, of which Vladimir I. Lenin was the most prominent, also chose neutral Switzerland as home base för their activities.

The LFR’s first move was to issue an appeal to American President Woodrow Wilson. He was described as an ardent defender of humanity and justice.the most ardent defender of humanity and justice by the League.

For more information on the League see Seppo Zetterberg, ”Die Liga der Fremdvölker Russlands, 1916-1918: Ein beitrag zu Deutschlands antirussischen Propagandakrieg unter den Fremdvölkern im Ersten Weltkrieg, Helsinki: Finska Historiska Samfundet,1978.

After Berlin Dontsov moved to Kyiv. The Ukrainan State of Hetman Pavlo Skoropadsky was formed on April 29, 1918. During the summer and fall of 1918, the hetman and the Germans placed Dontsov in charge of the Ukrainization efforts. Although he later decried Soviet Ukrainization as a cynical ploy, Dontsov worked intensely to promote Ukrainian national consciousness through schools, newspapers, and government under the Hetmanate.

On May 24 Dontsov was appointed director of the Ukrainian State’s Ukrainian Telegraph Agency (UTA) and press bureau. In reality UTA and the press bureau was overseeing the information activities of the Ukrainian State. Skoropadsky regularly consulted with Dontsov concerning policy. The hetman wanted efforts to rally the peasants for the state, and Dontsov was put in charge. Hoping to reach the latter, the Hetman ordered Dontsov to develop a publication to rally the peasantry around the Ukrainian Stae. The result was Selianske slovo (The Village Word) which spread the information of the government in the countryside. The goal was to build a broad coalition of conservative farmers, landowners, and intellectuals.

In October 1918 the Government of the Ukrainian State wanted to establish permanent diplomatic relations between of Sweden and the Ukrainian State. The purpose was to establish friendly connections and mutual understanding between the two nations. A diplomatic mission was sent to Scandinavia headed by Borys Bazhenov.

Bazhenov settled down in the “The Grand Hotel” at Södra Blasieholmshamnen, 8. Later the Mission was located in the Hotel Regina on Drottninggatan 42-44 in Stockholm.

In January 1919 Kostyantyn Losskyi was appointed head of the Mission. When he arrived in Stockholm the Mission relocated to Drottninggatan 83 and the head of the Mission lived in an apartment on Karlbergsvägen 43B. From October 1, 1919 to February 1920, this was also the office of the Mission.

Further reading

Trevor Erlacher,“The Götterdämmerung of Ukraїnophilia: Ukrainian Nationalism and the Entangled Eastern Front, 1914-1921,” Carolina Seminar sponsored by the University of North Carolina Center for Slavic, Eurasian, and East European Studies, Chapel Hill, NC, December 8, 2016.

“The Furies of Nationalism: Dmytro Dontsov, the Ukrainian Idea, and Europe’s Twentieth Century” (forthcoming). Looking at the biography of Dmytro Dontsov (1883-1973), Trevor Erlacher explores the global and transnational dimensions, ideological development and cultural expression of Ukrainian integral nationalism from its origins to post-Communist Ukraine.

ANTICOMMUNIST ARCHITECTURE IN SOUTH KOREA

January 3, 2019

During the 1960s and 1970s anticommunism was reflected in architecture and urban planning in the South Korean capital of Seoul. The Federation of Artistic and Cultural Organizations of Korea (FACOK) was founded with the Korean Institute of Architects as a member of FACOK.

The Freedom Center is one example of the buildings constructed in the 1960s. Other examples are statues of national war heroes (Yi Sun Sin), and the War Memorial. There were plans to fortify Seoul and coastal development plans for the Han River and south of the river.

Yi Sun Sin (1545 – 1598) was a naval commander during the Japanese invasions of Joseon (Korea) that lasted from 1592 to 1598. The invasion is also known as the Seven Year War, or the Imjin War. The official name of Yi’s title was “naval commander of the three provinces” as he was in charge of navies of Chungcheong, Jeolla, and Gyeongsang provinces. He is known for his exceptional leadership and naval strategies which resulted in victories in all his twenty three battles. Although he was arrested and relegated for a while, he was soon restored to lead Joseon’s navy till the last battle.

The War Memorial of Korea, located in Yongsan-gu, Seoul, exhibits and preserve materials related to the Korean War and serves as a national moral educational venue. It was established to commemorate the noble sacrifice of patriotic martyrs by the War Memorial Service Korea Society on June 10, 1994. The museum houses approximately 33,000 artifacts with about 10,000 on display at an indoor and outside exhibition halls.

There are six separate indoor halls, including Expeditionary Forces Room, Patriotic Memorial Room, War History Room, 6•25 Korean War Room, Development Hall and Large Machinery Room. The outdoor exhibition hall showcases large-sized weapons. Visitors of all ages from children to adults can also participate in 20 various educational programs and diverse cultural events such as military music and honor guard events, drawing contest, cultural event and more. The character of War Memorial of Korea is ‘Mudori’ featuring a helmet symbolizing the protection of the nation and a bay leaf meaning peace.

The total area of the War Memorial is 116,793m² with the exhibition halls 20,360m² .

In the Memorial Hall there is an exhibition hall dedicated to the memory of patriots involved in past war efforts. The place presents sculptures, reliefs, and wall paintings under the theme of overcoming hardship, and working towards the unity, prosperity and eternity of the nation.

There is also a war history from prehistoric era to the Japanese colonial period. Military remains, relics, and documents are on display as well. Among them are war & victory records, ammunition, the Turtle Ship (and other military vessels from the Joseon Dynasty), fortress models, and more.

The background of the Korean War is presented with the progression of the war and how a truce was eventually established. Exhibits also display ammunition used by hostile and friendly forces, information and artifacts from people displaced by the war, and information on major battles.

The role of the expeditionary forces was important. Information in this exhibit describes the Vietnam War and the implication of Korean troops dispatched in Vietnam. Other information explains the activities Korean troops were mainly engaged in during the Vietnam War, and the tactics of the Viet Cong.

The ROK Armed Forces part presents the progression of the Korean Army, Navy, Air Force and Marine Corps from the time of their inception till today.

The South Korean defense industry is presented with replicas of state-of-the-art weapons that are produced by domestic companies. Items include fighters, submarines, destroyers, and communication apparatuses.

Around 110 pieces of large military equipments/symbols are on display. They include Korean War sculptures, the Statue of Brethren, the Statue of King Gwanggaeto, AH-2, T-34 of the North, US B-52 and others.

MADAME NHU AND THE STRUGGLE FOR VIETNAM FREEDOM

May 31, 2018

One of the most recognized figures in the history of the Republic of Vietnam (Viet Nam Cong Hoa) was Tran Le Xuan, better known as Madame Nhu, the wife of Ngo Dinh Nhu, the brother of the first Vietnamese President Ngo Dinh Diem and the unofficial “First Lady” of South Vietnam. Aside from her husband, Madame Nhu herself had quite an illustrious ancestry. Her mother was Than Trong Nam Tran who was a daughter of Princess Nhu Phien who was the youngest daughter of H.I.M. Dong Khanh, the ninth Emperor of the Nguyen Dynasty.

She married Ngo Dinh Nhu and converted to Christianity, becoming a Catholic and a very public face for the young South Vietnamese government. Her husband, Ngo Dinh Nhu ran the Can Lao political movement in support of the personalist regime of Diem. Madame Nhu was, in every respect, a fiery and committed woman, which both her friends and her many enemies could agree on. She played a leading role in the moral reform President Diem instituted in South Vietnam, closing down brothels, opium dens and gambling houses. She was at the front of imposing what was known as the “campaign for public morality” on South Vietnam, which included the abolition of divorce, contraceptives and abortion. Nightclubs and ball rooms were also often targets. Even beauty pageants were halted as Madame Nhu believed they simply contributed to the objectification of women. This campaign of decency, while admirable, was met with a great deal of hostility by those who did not share Madame Nhu’s view of ethics.

“The Dragon Lady” as she came to be called, was also a passionate anti-communist and was determined that women should play a leading role in defending their country from Communist infiltration. She formed a corps of women warriors and there is a famous photograph of her at their training ground, firing a .38 pistol for the first time. That event sums up a great deal of her character. Having never used a firearm before she was startled by the noise of the first shot. Laughing it off, she vowed that she would not flinch again and fired the remaining five rounds as though she were an expert. She also fostered a renewal of commemorations for the Trung Sisters, the heroic co-Queens of early Viet Nam who fought against Chinese occupation.

Madame Nhu was, like the rest of the Diem clan and most Vietnamese of her background, extremely devoted to her family. In her eyes, her husband was the heart of the Diem regime and could do no wrong. Commenting on the American effort to remove Ngo Dinh Nhu, she said that Diem refused because he knew that, as she said, “my husband could do without him, but he, he could not do without my husband”. She was also patriotic.

After being removed from power, Diem was assassinated along with his brother Nhu. Madame Nhu was, at that time, on a tour of the United States giving speeches in support of Vietnam’s war against Communism. When hearing of the event and the rumored involvement of the United States she said, “Whoever has the Americans as allies does not need enemies”. She went on to predict a dark future for her country, which was sadly to prove all too acurate. With Diem gone, the U.S. was firmly in control of the Vietnam conflict and Madame Nhu retired from public life to Italy.

Comment: The struggle for Vietnam freedom continues both outside and inside Vietnam. Madame Nhu was a patriotic leader of South Vietnam and should be more widely recognized as such.

LIBERATING UKRAINE: PRESIDENT GEORGE H.W. BUSH, PRIME MINISTER YAROSLAV STETSKO SUPPORTED THE UKRAINIAN INSURGENT ARMY (UPA)

May 28, 2018

Both Bush and Stetsko supported the UPA in its liberation strategy for Ukraine.

Extremely brutal occupation policies of the Nazis forced the party for liberation, OUN (b) Provid (the governing body of the organization) to take up arms and defend the population. The first UPA hundred (military unit) was formed on January 22, 1943. And on February 7 it already defeated the German commandant’s office in the district center Volodymyrets, Rivne region.

In the spring of 1943, the UPA constantly increased the extent of resistance. Their fiercest clashes with the Germans happened near Lutsk, Kovel, Horokhiv, Rivne, Kremenets, Kostopil, Sarny and Lanivtsi. During March 1943, the insurgents seized regional centers five times. At the end of the first spring month, the German officials reported to Reichskommissar Erich Koch that only two areas in Volyn were free of “gangs”.

The occupation administration began undertaking extensive anti-partisan operations involving armor and aircraft. At the end of April, a division for fighting the UPA was redeployed to Berezne, Lyudvypil, Mizoch, Ostroh, Shumsk, and Kremenets.

The Nazis counterinsurgency actions proved to have little effect. While in March the UPA units attacked the German economic targets only 8 times, in April there were already 57 attacks, and 70 in May.

Heinrich Schoene, General Commissar of Volyn-Podillya, reported at a meeting in Rivne June 5, 1943 to Reich Minister for the Occupied Eastern Territories Alfred Rosenberg that “Ukrainian nationalists cause more difficulties than the Bolshevik gangs” to his administration.

The Soviet partisans’ leadership also recognized this fact later. Petro Vershyhora, commander of Soviet partisans, reported to the Ukrainian Partisan Movement Headquarters on March 4, 1944, “We cannot make the same mistake in Poland as we did in Volyn by passing the leadership of a popular uprising against the Germans into the hands of counterrevolutionary groups of nationalists.”

The available Nazi forces were not enough to suppress resistance. Therefore, Erich von dem Bach, commander of anti-partisan forces in the East, took the struggle against the UPA in his hands in July 1943. He commanded the 8th SS Cavalry Division Florian Geyer (10,000 soldiers) and 10 mechanized infantry battalions with artillery. The grouping was covered by 27 aircraft from the air and 50 tanks and armored vehicles on the ground.

However, UPA units maneuvered and gave the enemy no chance to destroy them. Overall, in July the insurgents attacked German bases 295 times, and maintenance building 119 times.

In early August 1943, von dem Bach was sent to another area. The German pressure weakened, and the UPA intensified their anti-German operations: 391 assaults on garrisons and 151 attacks on enterprises.

But soon, Hans-Adolf Prützmann, Higher SS and Ukrainian Police Leader, organized a new attack on the UPA. This attack lasted from August 23 to September 9, 1943 in South Volyn. First, aircraft bombed the village of Antonivtsi, which was the headquarters of the Bohun group. Then the punitive expedition attacked the UPA camp in Kremenets forests. The Kurins(battalions) had to split into small units and break out of the encirclement.

In the summer of 1943 the insurgency anti-Nazi movement spread over Halychyna. On August 18, Ukrainian People’s Self-Defense (UNS, the original name of UPA in Halychyna) attacked the German stone quarry in Skole, Lviv region. The nationalists freed 150 forced laborers and killed the camp security guards.

Autumn 1943 was the beginning of larger scale battles between the insurgents and the Nazis. On September 3, Ukrainian soldiers on commanding eminence executed a German battalion that was travelling by narrow-gauge rail in the mountains near the town of Dolyna. The invaders left about 200 soldiers on the battlefield. On September 25-29, the Trembita hundred repelled a punitive attack on their camp on Mount Stovba.

On November 29-30, 1943, there was heavy fighting between 1.5-2 thousand Schutzmanns and the Kryvonis-II Kurin near the village of Nedilna, Sambir district. The insurgents retreated with considerable losses, almost the entire headquarters and the leader of the Kurin were killed on the battlefield.

Prützmann undertook the last major counterinsurgency action in Volyn in November 1943. On November 2-3, aircraft bombed the town of Stepan and ousted the units of Zahrava group to the north. Simultaneously, on November 3 German planes bombed and shelled the town of Kolky, where the UPA had formed the Kolky Republic. It should be noted that the Nazis could not seize the Republic from June to early November 1943, and then they carried out a clearance operation, killing 600 civilians.

In October-November 1943, the UPA-ONS conducted 47 fights against German occupiers, and the UPA village self-defense clashed with them 125 times. The Nazis lost more than 1,500 soldiers.

The Nazis failed to suppress the UPA resistance completely. The approaching Soviet-German front drained most part of military forces. Therefore, the German generals stopped undertaking actions against insurgents in Volyn. In Halychyna, the confrontation lasted until the end of summer 1944. Ukrainian People’s Self Defense (UNS) was re-formed into the UPA-West. In March-May 1944, the UPA defended Ukrainian villages against looting by the Germans. In May, the Wehrmacht defeated the Halaida and Siromantsi hundreds in Lviv region.

From May 31 to June 6, 1944, the units of the Wehrmacht’s 7th Armored Division fought against the UPA in the Chornyi Lis village. By mid-summer the confrontation in Halychyna peaked.

The biggest clashes of the UPA-West with the German-Hungarian troops took place around Mount Lopata on the boundary between Drohobych and Stanislav (now – Ivano-Frankivsk) regions. These events were also detailed in written reports of the Polish underground. From July 6 through July 16, 1944, heavy fighting took place – both with artillery engagement and close-handed fights. Insurgents under Vasyl Andrusyak’s command won. Fifty Ukrainians were killed. The invaders lost 200 soldiers and retreated.

Under pressure of the Red Army the Wehrmacht left Ukraine. The UPA continued to skirmish and disarm German units until early September.

There were episodes in the history of the Ukrainian insurgency movement when some commanders tried to illegally negotiate with the German command using the formula “neutrality in exchange for weapons” or “food in exchange for weapons.” Besides, several cases are known when from 80 to 100 small arms were handed over to the insurgents using the above formula. But the Ukrainian underground leadership did not welcome such arrangements. In some cases, it even led to severe punishment. In March 1944, the UPA field court martial sentenced Porphyriy Antoniuk, the first initiator of the unauthorized negotiations, to death. In April 1944, Mykola Oliynyk was sentenced to death by the UPA court.

However, the talks with the German occupation officials were subsequently held by the OUN (b) Provid. The occupiers wanted the OUN and UPA to stop fighting against them so that the Germans could focus on repelling the Soviet Army’s advance. The OUN members sought to secure the release of prisoners of concentration camps (Stepan Bandera, Yaroslav Stetsko and many others) as well as to obtain weapons, which they always lacked. Meetings between the Provid members and German authorities took place in March, April, June and July 1944. As a result of them, the insurgents received several hundred units of weapons, and in September – October 1944 Bandera and other Ukrainian nationalists were released, though they remained under the Gestapo supervision.

Instead, insurgents decreased intensity of their anti-Nazi actions (mainly in Volyn), but did not stop them. Major Müller, officer of the group of armies “South” reported: “While some Ukrainian nationalist gangs follow the orders of the German Wehrmacht or perform its task, others fight fiercely against the Wehrmacht.”

According to researchers, 12 thousand German invaders and their allies were killed by UPA members. The Ukrainian underground and insurgent units also lost 10-12 thousand people during the armed confrontation with the occupiers.

On August 25, 1943 Hans-Adolf Prützmann, Higher SS and Ukrainian Police Leader, sent the following telegram: “To the Commander of the group of armies ‘South’. Due to the fact that the Reichsführer-SS ordered to send strong teams of military units previously assigned to me to the front, I have to limit myself to the remnants of these units to suppress the Ukrainian national uprising in Volyn. Since this results in appearing of large uncontrolled areas in the north of Ukraine, in the near future there will be increased pressure from gangs in the south sector.”