Archive for May, 2018

MADAME NHU AND THE STRUGGLE FOR VIETNAM FREEDOM

May 31, 2018

One of the most recognized figures in the history of the Republic of Vietnam (Viet Nam Cong Hoa) was Tran Le Xuan, better known as Madame Nhu, the wife of Ngo Dinh Nhu, the brother of the first Vietnamese President Ngo Dinh Diem and the unofficial “First Lady” of South Vietnam. Aside from her husband, Madame Nhu herself had quite an illustrious ancestry. Her mother was Than Trong Nam Tran who was a daughter of Princess Nhu Phien who was the youngest daughter of H.I.M. Dong Khanh, the ninth Emperor of the Nguyen Dynasty.

She married Ngo Dinh Nhu and converted to Christianity, becoming a Catholic and a very public face for the young South Vietnamese government. Her husband, Ngo Dinh Nhu ran the Can Lao political movement in support of the personalist regime of Diem. Madame Nhu was, in every respect, a fiery and committed woman, which both her friends and her many enemies could agree on. She played a leading role in the moral reform President Diem instituted in South Vietnam, closing down brothels, opium dens and gambling houses. She was at the front of imposing what was known as the “campaign for public morality” on South Vietnam, which included the abolition of divorce, contraceptives and abortion. Nightclubs and ball rooms were also often targets. Even beauty pageants were halted as Madame Nhu believed they simply contributed to the objectification of women. This campaign of decency, while admirable, was met with a great deal of hostility by those who did not share Madame Nhu’s view of ethics.

“The Dragon Lady” as she came to be called, was also a passionate anti-communist and was determined that women should play a leading role in defending their country from Communist infiltration. She formed a corps of women warriors and there is a famous photograph of her at their training ground, firing a .38 pistol for the first time. That event sums up a great deal of her character. Having never used a firearm before she was startled by the noise of the first shot. Laughing it off, she vowed that she would not flinch again and fired the remaining five rounds as though she were an expert. She also fostered a renewal of commemorations for the Trung Sisters, the heroic co-Queens of early Viet Nam who fought against Chinese occupation.

Madame Nhu was, like the rest of the Diem clan and most Vietnamese of her background, extremely devoted to her family. In her eyes, her husband was the heart of the Diem regime and could do no wrong. Commenting on the American effort to remove Ngo Dinh Nhu, she said that Diem refused because he knew that, as she said, “my husband could do without him, but he, he could not do without my husband”. She was also patriotic.

After being removed from power, Diem was assassinated along with his brother Nhu. Madame Nhu was, at that time, on a tour of the United States giving speeches in support of Vietnam’s war against Communism. When hearing of the event and the rumored involvement of the United States she said, “Whoever has the Americans as allies does not need enemies”. She went on to predict a dark future for her country, which was sadly to prove all too acurate. With Diem gone, the U.S. was firmly in control of the Vietnam conflict and Madame Nhu retired from public life to Italy.

Comment: The struggle for Vietnam freedom continues both outside and inside Vietnam. Madame Nhu was a patriotic leader of South Vietnam and should be more widely recognized as such.

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NICCOLO MACHIAVELLI, JAMES BURNHAM AND SINGAPORE

May 31, 2018

It has been said the Lee Quan Yew’s Singapore is a city state built on the principles of Niccoló Machiavelli’s political science formulas. Below is a look at the great Italian’s conception of history in the view of the American theorist James Burnham (1905 – 1987):

1

”Political life, according to Machiavelli, is never static, but in continual change. There is no way of avoiding this change…The process of change is repetitive, and roughly cyclical. That is to say , the pattern of change occurs again and again in history (so that studying the past, we learn also about the present and future); and this pattern comprises a more or less recognizable cycle.”

James Burnham, Machiavellians – The Defenders of Freedom, first ed. 1943., p. 70.

2

”The recurring pattern of change expresses the more or less permanent core of human nature as it functions politically. The instability of all governments and political forms follows in part from the limitless human appetite for power.”

(pp. 71-72)

3

”Machiavelli assign a major function in political affairs to what he calls ’Fortune’…From the passages it becomes clear what Machiavelli means by ’Fortune’. Fortune is all those causes of historical change that are beyond the deliberate, rational control of men.”

(pp. 72-73)

4

”Machiavelli believes that religion is essential to the well-being of a state. In discussing religion, as in discussing human nature, Machiavelli confines himself to political function”.

(p. 75)

”What kind of government did Machiavelli think best?…Machiavelli’s writings, taken in their
entirety, leave no doubt about the answer. Machiavelli thinks that the best kind of government is a republic, what he called a ’commonwealth’…If a republic is the best form government, it does not follow that a republic is possible at every moment and for all things.”

(pp 77-78)

5

As protectors of liberty, Machiavelli has no confidence in individual men as such; driven by unlimited ambition, deceiving even themselves, they are always corrupted by power. But individuals can, to some extent and for a while, be disciplined within the established framework of wise laws. [If liberty is to be preserved] no person and no magistrate may be permitted to be above the law.”

(p.79)

6

”Liberty, then – not rhetorical liberty of an impossible and misconceived utopia, but such concrete liberty as is, when they are fortunate, within the grasp of real men, with their real limitations – is the dominant ideal of Machiavelli, and his final norm of judgement. Tyranny is liberty’s opposite, and no man has been a clearer foe of tyranny. No man clearer, and few more eloquent.”

(p. 81)

LIBERATING UKRAINE: PRESIDENT GEORGE H.W. BUSH, PRIME MINISTER YAROSLAV STETSKO SUPPORTED THE UKRAINIAN INSURGENT ARMY (UPA)

May 28, 2018

Both Bush and Stetsko supported the UPA in its liberation strategy for Ukraine.

Extremely brutal occupation policies of the Nazis forced the party for liberation, OUN (b) Provid (the governing body of the organization) to take up arms and defend the population. The first UPA hundred (military unit) was formed on January 22, 1943. And on February 7 it already defeated the German commandant’s office in the district center Volodymyrets, Rivne region.

In the spring of 1943, the UPA constantly increased the extent of resistance. Their fiercest clashes with the Germans happened near Lutsk, Kovel, Horokhiv, Rivne, Kremenets, Kostopil, Sarny and Lanivtsi. During March 1943, the insurgents seized regional centers five times. At the end of the first spring month, the German officials reported to Reichskommissar Erich Koch that only two areas in Volyn were free of “gangs”.

The occupation administration began undertaking extensive anti-partisan operations involving armor and aircraft. At the end of April, a division for fighting the UPA was redeployed to Berezne, Lyudvypil, Mizoch, Ostroh, Shumsk, and Kremenets.

The Nazis counterinsurgency actions proved to have little effect. While in March the UPA units attacked the German economic targets only 8 times, in April there were already 57 attacks, and 70 in May.

Heinrich Schoene, General Commissar of Volyn-Podillya, reported at a meeting in Rivne June 5, 1943 to Reich Minister for the Occupied Eastern Territories Alfred Rosenberg that “Ukrainian nationalists cause more difficulties than the Bolshevik gangs” to his administration.

The Soviet partisans’ leadership also recognized this fact later. Petro Vershyhora, commander of Soviet partisans, reported to the Ukrainian Partisan Movement Headquarters on March 4, 1944, “We cannot make the same mistake in Poland as we did in Volyn by passing the leadership of a popular uprising against the Germans into the hands of counterrevolutionary groups of nationalists.”

The available Nazi forces were not enough to suppress resistance. Therefore, Erich von dem Bach, commander of anti-partisan forces in the East, took the struggle against the UPA in his hands in July 1943. He commanded the 8th SS Cavalry Division Florian Geyer (10,000 soldiers) and 10 mechanized infantry battalions with artillery. The grouping was covered by 27 aircraft from the air and 50 tanks and armored vehicles on the ground.

However, UPA units maneuvered and gave the enemy no chance to destroy them. Overall, in July the insurgents attacked German bases 295 times, and maintenance building 119 times.

In early August 1943, von dem Bach was sent to another area. The German pressure weakened, and the UPA intensified their anti-German operations: 391 assaults on garrisons and 151 attacks on enterprises.

But soon, Hans-Adolf Prützmann, Higher SS and Ukrainian Police Leader, organized a new attack on the UPA. This attack lasted from August 23 to September 9, 1943 in South Volyn. First, aircraft bombed the village of Antonivtsi, which was the headquarters of the Bohun group. Then the punitive expedition attacked the UPA camp in Kremenets forests. The Kurins(battalions) had to split into small units and break out of the encirclement.

In the summer of 1943 the insurgency anti-Nazi movement spread over Halychyna. On August 18, Ukrainian People’s Self-Defense (UNS, the original name of UPA in Halychyna) attacked the German stone quarry in Skole, Lviv region. The nationalists freed 150 forced laborers and killed the camp security guards.

Autumn 1943 was the beginning of larger scale battles between the insurgents and the Nazis. On September 3, Ukrainian soldiers on commanding eminence executed a German battalion that was travelling by narrow-gauge rail in the mountains near the town of Dolyna. The invaders left about 200 soldiers on the battlefield. On September 25-29, the Trembita hundred repelled a punitive attack on their camp on Mount Stovba.

On November 29-30, 1943, there was heavy fighting between 1.5-2 thousand Schutzmanns and the Kryvonis-II Kurin near the village of Nedilna, Sambir district. The insurgents retreated with considerable losses, almost the entire headquarters and the leader of the Kurin were killed on the battlefield.

Prützmann undertook the last major counterinsurgency action in Volyn in November 1943. On November 2-3, aircraft bombed the town of Stepan and ousted the units of Zahrava group to the north. Simultaneously, on November 3 German planes bombed and shelled the town of Kolky, where the UPA had formed the Kolky Republic. It should be noted that the Nazis could not seize the Republic from June to early November 1943, and then they carried out a clearance operation, killing 600 civilians.

In October-November 1943, the UPA-ONS conducted 47 fights against German occupiers, and the UPA village self-defense clashed with them 125 times. The Nazis lost more than 1,500 soldiers.

The Nazis failed to suppress the UPA resistance completely. The approaching Soviet-German front drained most part of military forces. Therefore, the German generals stopped undertaking actions against insurgents in Volyn. In Halychyna, the confrontation lasted until the end of summer 1944. Ukrainian People’s Self Defense (UNS) was re-formed into the UPA-West. In March-May 1944, the UPA defended Ukrainian villages against looting by the Germans. In May, the Wehrmacht defeated the Halaida and Siromantsi hundreds in Lviv region.

From May 31 to June 6, 1944, the units of the Wehrmacht’s 7th Armored Division fought against the UPA in the Chornyi Lis village. By mid-summer the confrontation in Halychyna peaked.

The biggest clashes of the UPA-West with the German-Hungarian troops took place around Mount Lopata on the boundary between Drohobych and Stanislav (now – Ivano-Frankivsk) regions. These events were also detailed in written reports of the Polish underground. From July 6 through July 16, 1944, heavy fighting took place – both with artillery engagement and close-handed fights. Insurgents under Vasyl Andrusyak’s command won. Fifty Ukrainians were killed. The invaders lost 200 soldiers and retreated.

Under pressure of the Red Army the Wehrmacht left Ukraine. The UPA continued to skirmish and disarm German units until early September.

There were episodes in the history of the Ukrainian insurgency movement when some commanders tried to illegally negotiate with the German command using the formula “neutrality in exchange for weapons” or “food in exchange for weapons.” Besides, several cases are known when from 80 to 100 small arms were handed over to the insurgents using the above formula. But the Ukrainian underground leadership did not welcome such arrangements. In some cases, it even led to severe punishment. In March 1944, the UPA field court martial sentenced Porphyriy Antoniuk, the first initiator of the unauthorized negotiations, to death. In April 1944, Mykola Oliynyk was sentenced to death by the UPA court.

However, the talks with the German occupation officials were subsequently held by the OUN (b) Provid. The occupiers wanted the OUN and UPA to stop fighting against them so that the Germans could focus on repelling the Soviet Army’s advance. The OUN members sought to secure the release of prisoners of concentration camps (Stepan Bandera, Yaroslav Stetsko and many others) as well as to obtain weapons, which they always lacked. Meetings between the Provid members and German authorities took place in March, April, June and July 1944. As a result of them, the insurgents received several hundred units of weapons, and in September – October 1944 Bandera and other Ukrainian nationalists were released, though they remained under the Gestapo supervision.

Instead, insurgents decreased intensity of their anti-Nazi actions (mainly in Volyn), but did not stop them. Major Müller, officer of the group of armies “South” reported: “While some Ukrainian nationalist gangs follow the orders of the German Wehrmacht or perform its task, others fight fiercely against the Wehrmacht.”

According to researchers, 12 thousand German invaders and their allies were killed by UPA members. The Ukrainian underground and insurgent units also lost 10-12 thousand people during the armed confrontation with the occupiers.

On August 25, 1943 Hans-Adolf Prützmann, Higher SS and Ukrainian Police Leader, sent the following telegram: “To the Commander of the group of armies ‘South’. Due to the fact that the Reichsführer-SS ordered to send strong teams of military units previously assigned to me to the front, I have to limit myself to the remnants of these units to suppress the Ukrainian national uprising in Volyn. Since this results in appearing of large uncontrolled areas in the north of Ukraine, in the near future there will be increased pressure from gangs in the south sector.”

SWEDISH-UKRAINIAN RELATIONS – PRESIDENT YAROSLAV STETSKO IN STOCKHOLM 1964

May 15, 2018

At a 1964 visit in Stockholm exiled Ukrainian President Yaroslav Stetsko of Ukraine celebrated the memory of King Charles XII by placing a wreath on the tomb of the King. He expressed his gratitude to Sweden in the following way:

We, the Ukrainians, Estonians, Lithuanians, Georgians and other peoples subjugated by Russia, today honor the memory of the heroic King of the Swedes, Charles XII. Two hundred and fifty years agao this great statesman and European foresaw the danger to Europe from Russia and strove to prevent it.

In this common struggle by the Swedish people under Charles XII and the Ukrainians led by Hetman Ivan Mazepa, our countries were abandoned by the rest of Europe.

In the memory of our nations Charles XII remains for ever the defender of our rights and freedoms, the defender of the ideal of independence for our nations.

Today, here, in the name of the Ukrainian, Estonian, Lithuanian, Latvian, Georgian and other nations of Eastern Europe, we express our recognition and gratitude to the Swedish people for the sacrifices made by them on the battlefield of Poltava in 1709 and on other battlefields in Eastern Europe for our independence.

Comment: The wreath laying ceremony took place in relation to the arrival of Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchov in Sweden on Monday, June 22nd, toward 12:00 oclock noon. He had been invited, in spite popular protests by the Swedish people, by the social democratic government. The visit of Stetsko angered the Soviet leader who later during the visit lost his temper. The reception by people to Krushchov and his motorcade was reserved and very cool.

NETANYAHU: NIXING IRAN NUCLEAR DEAL A HISTORIC MOVE

May 9, 2018

Washington Free Beacon on May 8, 2018 reported on the Israeli reaction to the United States leaving the Iran nuclear deal. Excerpts below:

Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu on Tuesday thanked President Donald Trump for his “courageous leadership” after he announced that the United States is leaving the Iran nuclear deal.

“President Trump did a historic move, and this is why Israel thanks President Trump for his courageous leadership, his commitment to confront the terrorist regime in Tehran, and his commitment to ensure that Iran never gets nuclear weapons. Not today, not in a decade, not ever,” Netanyahu said.

“It is clear to me that we cannot prevent an Iranian nuclear bomb under the decaying and rotten structure of the current agreement,” Trump said from the White House Diplomatic Room. “The Iran deal is defective at its core. If we do nothing, we know exactly what will happen.”

In discussing the lead-up to withdrawal decision, the president said his administration had consulted with U.S. allies in the Middle East, among them Israel.

“We have also consulted with our friends from across the Middle East,” Trump said. “We are unified in our understanding of the threat and in our conviction that Iran must never acquire a nuclear weapon. After these consultations, it is clear to me that we cannot prevent an Iranian nuclear bomb under the decaying and rotten structure of the current agreement.”

Following Trump’s remarks, the White House National Security Adviser John Bolton told reporters that sanctions on Iran will be “immediately” reinstated.

“The decision is very clear,” Bolton said. “It’s a firm statement of American resolve to prevent not only Iran from getting nuclear weapons” but also from strengthening its ballistic missile program and support for terror groups.
Comment. Sanctions against Iran are welcome. They will contribute to stopping Iran’s ongoing foreign adventures in Lebanon, Syria and Yemen. There are signs that ordinary Iranians are tired of Tehrans costly foreign adventures. They want peace and a decent life.

FORMER SECRETARY OF STATE JOHN KERRY ATTEMPTS TO SAVE IRAN NUCLEAR DEAL WITH POSSIBLE ILLEGAL ACTIVITIES

May 6, 2018

Fox News on May 4, 2018 reported on the ”shadow diplomacy” of former Secretary of State John Kerry in an effort to save the Iran nuclear deal. Excerpts below:

The Boston Globe reported Friday that Kerry sat down twice with Iranian Foreign Minister Javad Zarif in recent months to strategize in a bid to save the deal, as part of what the Globe described as “an aggressive yet stealthy” mission to put pressure on the Trump administration to keep the deal in some form.

…Kerry has been ramping up his meetings ahead of that deadline. He reportedly met with German President Frank-Walter Steinmeier — who was foreign minister of Germany when the deal was negotiated. He has also met with French President Emmanuel Macron twice and spoken by phone with European Union foreign affairs chief Federica Mogherini.

Kerry’s actions could violate the Logan Act which prohibits private citizens from negotiating on behalf of the U.S. government without authorization.

“John Kerry helped craft a flaccid deal that granted the terror regime in Tehran vast monetary and geopolitical concessions, even as it put them on the glide path to nuclear weapons by its own terms,” Sohrab Ahmari, senior writer at Commentary magazine, told Fox News. “The biggest public service he can render now is to go away.”

Florida Sen. Marco Rubio said Kerry’s move “certainly raises Logan Act questions.”

According to The Globe, Kerry has also been trying to get Congress on his side by placing dozens of phone calls, including to House Speaker Paul Ryan.

Kerry is reported to have coordinated his push with a group of former top State Department advisers who helped negotiate the Iran deal — named Diplomacy Works. The group has reportedly chosen to focus on Europeans, Israelis and non-partisan experts to try and salvage the deal.

Washington Times on May 5, 2018 reported that thousands of supporters of the Iranian opposition gathered just blocks from the White House for the downfall of Tehran’s theocratic government and invited President Donald Trump to “rip up” the Iran nuclear deal. Excerpts below:

“We do not want President Trump to renegotiate, we want him to rip it up,” said Shiran Nariman, a spokeswoman for the Organization of Iranian American Communities (OIAC) and an event organizer.

At no time has the regime been so engulfed in crisis, and at no time has the time been so ripe to organize and expand the uprising.

The international community should abandon the agreement and instead conduct unconditional inspections of Iran’s nuclear weapons and ballistic missiles program.

These were opinions expressed on May 5.

[One of the speakers was Mr. Rudi Giuliani]. He noted that Mr. Trump backed the Iranian protests earlier this year with the simple words “we support their fight for freedom” and the crowd erupted.

All speakers predicted regime change is coming soon, with Ms. Nariman of the National Council of Resistance (NCRI) of Iran noting that one of the organization’s most prominent Washington supporters, John R. Bolton, is President Trump’s new national security adviser.

Newly installed Secretary of State Mike Pompeo also supports regime change.

Ms. Nariman expressed hope that this group, in addition to Mr. Giuliani and Mr. Trump, would soon bring about change.

GROWING SUPPORT FOR A FREE IRAN IN THE UNITED STATES

May 5, 2018

Washington Times on May 3, 2018 reported on growing Iranian-American support for a free Iran. Excerpts below:

Iranian-Americans are holding a major conference in the District of Columbia [May 5] to support the protests that have arisen inside Iran against the Islamic Republic’s hard-line government in recent months.

Organizers say a goal of the conference — featuring speeches by …former New York City Mayor Rudolph Giuliani and former Democratic New Mexico Gov. Bill Richardson — is to drum up stronger U.S. recognition for the pro-democracy movement inside Iran.

Washington could and should do more to formally “recognize the Iranian opposition,” said Shirin Nariman, a spokeswoman for the Organization of Iranian American Communities.

The OIAC is a grass-roots arm of the National Council of Resistance of Iran, an exile Iranian dissident group that has long called for a new government in Tehran and criticized the Islamic Republic’s human rights record. It says more than 1,000 Iranians from across the U.S. will be on hand for the conference at the Grand Hyatt Hotel just a few blocks from the White House.

Delegates “representing Iranian-American communities from 40 states … will voice support for the continuing protests and the uprising that erupted in 142 cities across [Iran], and for a free, democratic, secular, and non-nuclear republic in Iran,” the group said in a statement.

Comment: This is welcome news. During the Obama administration (2008 to 2016) the Iran opposition was ignored. Iran is a challenger to the West and broader Western support for the opposition could lead to the fall of the Tehran theocracy.

MOZAMBICAN FREEDOM FIGHTER PASSED AWAY AT AGE OF 65

May 5, 2018

Fox News on May 4, 2018, reported that Afonso Dhlakama, freedom fighter and opposition leader, has died. Excerpts below:

During the civil war that ended in 1992 he lead the [anticommunist] Renamo [Mozambican National Resistance] struggle against the marxist Frelimo party…

…Dhlakama died in the Gorongosa area of central Sofala province, where he was based…tensions have eased in Mozambique in 2017 as Dhlakama met President Filipe Nyusi in Gorongosa to discuss disputes between the two sides.

Comment: When Mozambique gained independence from Portugal in 1975 it lead to socialist rule of Samora Machel. The administration of President Ronald Reagan supported aiding anti-Communist movements in countries aligned with the Soviet Union but Washington did not support the pro-Western Mozambique National Resistance (RENAMO), which wanted market reforms for its country. RENAMO was a democratic movement on the verge of overthrowing a Soviet client state. A RENAMO victory would have shown the world that the Soviet Union and its Brezhnev Doctrine were not invincible.

During the Cold War Jack Wheeler of the Freedom Research Foundation in California was a staunch supporter of the armed struggle around the world for freedom from marxism-leninism. Thomas W. Schaaf Jr. was executive director of the Mozambique Research Center in Washington D.C., which supported Renamo.

American businessmen and evangelical Christian Christians during the 1980s aided Renamo. Supporting institutions were the Heritage Foundation in Washington D.C. and the Free the Eagle group. Renamo also had strong supporters in the US Congress, notably Sen. Jesse Helms (R-N.C.) and Rep. Danny Lee Burton (R-Ind.).

It seems likely that stronger Western support for Renamo in the 1980s leading to victory would have resulted in a more prosperous Mozambique after the collapse of the Soviet Union.

CHANGING CHINA’S PREDATORY TRADE PRACTICES

May 4, 2018

Reuters reported on May 3, 2018, that the Trump administration’s top economic officials had arrived in China.

They will try to get the Chinese government to open its markets and give up its predatory trade practicies.

The officials want to bring down the trade deficit by 20 percent or around 100 billion dollars. The also seek to get China to allow U S businesses to operate and sell in China without having to partner with a Chinese company. The existing rules are helping China to transfer U S technology and know-how in a way that is damaging to America.

China has for years been conquering the world’s export markets. This conquest has vaporized manufacturing jobs and driven down wages from the heartland of America. The China wars are fought over everything from decent jobs, livable wages, and leading-edge technologies to strategic resources such as copper and steel.

In an op-ed in a large US daily newspaper, Senator Marco Rubio (R-FL) is writing that the “economic relationship with China that has become increasingly unbalanced — and, over the long term, dangerous — for the U.S.” Rubio announces new legislation to combat intellectual property (IP) theft.

China’s trade policies are two-faced: “One face [that] outwardly offers soaring and seductive promises of an emerging global economic order that will become more open and equitable as nations increase trade and commerce with China. … The other face speaks inwardly to China’s ultimate geopolitical intentions.”

Rubio says China is stealing IP for nearly $600 billion annually from just the U.S. The Florida Senator calls on Congress to support the administration’s efforts to reform trade with China. Next week he will introduce the Fair Trade With China Enforcement Act to “guard the American people against China’s nefarious influence on national and economic security, directly targeting China’s tools of economic aggression.” The legislation would ban the sale of all sensitive technology or intellectual property to Chinese entities and impose a shareholding cap on Chinese investors in American corporations to prevent undue influence in corporate governance.

Comment: This is an excellent initiative. It is time to push back when it comes to the dark side of the rise of China. Other Western countries ought to act now to address the mounting problems of the Beijing challenge.

The rise of China has resulted in efforts along the Asian rimland to balance against the challenge to the established territorial status quo and national interests. China uses geographical proximity, overall strength, offensive capabilities, and offensive intentions. The size and position at the heart of the Asian landmass sends a geopolitical message. The Chinese military is modernizing its navy and air force, investing in anti-access/area denial technologies, and build aircraft carriers. Declarations such as the East China Sea Air Defense Identification Zone send a troubling message across the region. But China is not the only challenge on the World Island in the geopolitical theory of Halford Mackinder and Nicholas Spykman. The West is presently challenged by the three empires on the rimland of Eurasia: China, Russia and Iran/Persia.

US AIR FORCE: NEXT GENERATION B-21 BOMBER FOR MISSOURI, SOUTH DAKOTA AND TEXAS

May 4, 2018

The Associated Press and Washington Times on May 2, 2018 reported on the planned basing of the next-generation US B-21 Raider bomber . Excerpts below:

The U.S. Air Force says bases in Missouri, South Dakota and Texas will receive the next-generation B-21 bomber to replace existing aircraft starting in the mid-2020s.

The Air Force said Wednesday that Dyess Air Force Base in Texas, Ellsworth Air Force Base in South Dakota and Whiteman Air Force Base in Missouri have been chosen as “reasonable alternatives ” to host the new B-21 bomber.

Officials are expected to make a final basing decision in 2019…

Comment: The B-21 Raider will be capable of penetrating the toughest defenses to deliver precision strikes anywhere in the world. Northrop Grumman is providing America’s warfighters with an advanced aircraft offering a unique combination of range, payload, and survivability.

As stated by the Secretary of Defense, the B-21 Raider “will support America’s defense strategy by forming the backbone of the Air Force’s future strike and deterrent capabilities.”