Archive for May, 2016

GEOPOLITICS OF BALTIC SEA COMMUNICATION – LINKING PERIPHERIES WITH THE CENTER

May 16, 2016

Revised Abstract of an article published in 1999 by Swedish author Bertil Haggman.

An attempt is made in this essay to explain the importance of a new link around the Baltic Sea (the development since 1999 is now preventing this link to be constructed due to the present politics of Russia) being constructed to the core of Europe with a possible net of the Superspeed Maglev System Transrapid with a speed of 300 miles/hr.
The geopolitics of Baltic Sea communication is to a great extent based on the peripheral position of Europe’s northeastem countries. A Transrapid net around the Baltic Sea Helsinki – Stockholm – Hässleholm – Copenhagen – Hamburg – Berlin – Warsaw – Riga – Tallinn would link these countries to the core of Europe. An important ingredient in the link is bridges and tunnels.

The Oresund Fixed Link with its future tunnel (Helsingborg – Elsinore) and bridge will be the first fixed link between Denmark and the Scandinavian Peninsula in history. The bridge was fully completed in the summer of 2000. A railway tunnel between Elsinore (Denmark) and Helsingborg (Sweden) is needed in the beginning of the 21st century as an additional link. Other submarine tunnel projects of geopolitical importance are the Belt.

lmportant new possibilities exist for extending tunnel construction. The Symonds Group (a London construction and planning company) was in 1999 working on prefab submarine tunnels. These could be used across the St. George Channel between Dublin and Holyhead (about 90 km). The tunnel technique has been used for the Oresund Fixed Link and the Danish tunnel section of the link was completed in March 1999. Sweden, Finland, Poland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania would receive a structural boost with substantial consequences with the Northern Transrapid Net and its submarine and bridge links.

The German company Siemens has extensive experience in the Maglev field and there have been plans for that type of high speed railway between Hamburg and Berlin as well as in Bavaria.

It is crucial the Swedish Green Party does not manage to push through an out of date type of high speed railway at very high cost in Sweden. Maglev is the railway of the future and it is important that Sweden has a competitive infrastructure that benefits free enterprise.

KEYWORDS geopolitics, combined transport, transport in the Baltic Sea area

The complete 1999 article is available on the web.

Traffic Planning Scientific Paper U.D.C. 656.61(261.24) in the scientific journal Promet, Traffic & Transportation, Croatia-Italy.
Accepted: Mar. 2, 1999
Approved: Apr. 19, 1999 GEOPOLITICS OF BALTIC SEA

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SWEDEN, THE CRIMEAN TARTARS, AND THE CRIMEAN KHANATE – AN HISTORICAL OUTLINE

May 9, 2016

The first diplomatic contacts between Sweden and the Crimean Tatars took place during the reign of King Johan III (1568 – 1592). A Tatar delegation arrived in Stockholm.
As a result, Swedish delegates Erik Falck and Sigfrid Raalamb were dispatched to Crimea to negotiate for a Swedish-Crimean Tatar alliance against Russia.

A Crimean Tatar delegation arrived in Stockholm in 1630. Chief Delegate Kamber Aga offered Sweden 40,000 men for an attack against Poland or Germany. The answer to the proposal by the Swedish King Gustavus Adolphus is in the Swedish National Archive.

Swedish delegate Benjamin Baron arrived in Crimea in 1630. He was seeking the aid of the Khan for attacking King Sigismund of Poland. Baron remained in Crimea until 1631. Baron returned to Stockholm in 1632, accompanied by a Crimean Tatar delegation. The gifts brought by the delegation are still in the Royal Armory in Stockholm (among them an arrow quiver).

The delegation continued to Germany. It returned to Sweden in 1633. An exchange of letters between the delegation and the Swedish government can be found in the Swedish National Archive.

The next Crimean Tatar delegation arrived in Stockholm in 1637.

Contacts were continued after 1637 and during the reign of Swedish Kings Charles X Gustavus, Charles XI and Charles XII.

For the period between 1709 – 1714, the Swedish Officer Sven Lagerberg (after 1717 Major General in the Swedish Army) was military advisor to the Crimean Khan Devlet Giray. General Lagerberg’s diary kept during his stay in Crimea (“Dagbok under vistelsen hos tatarchan Dowlet-Gherey 1710 – 1711”) was published in Sweden in 1896.

For another article of interest see Bertil Haggman, see “Sequel to Poltava: Diplomacy to Contain Russia, 1709-1714″. It is also available in Turkish. Bertil Haggman is a Swedish attorney and author. Member of the National Press Club in Sweden he has published extensively on the Swedish alliance with Ukraine from 1708 to 1718.