Archive for May, 2015

SWEDEN’S COLD WAR STANCE AIDED THE SOVIETS – N0. 2 IN A SERIES

May 29, 2015

At the end of the 1960s and the beginning of the 1970s the Social Democratic government of Sweden shifted its policy in relation to the Soviet influenced part of the world. The Soviet Union repeatedly lauded Sweden’s policy of “friendship” and the policy was in Soviet daily newspaper Pravda described as:

an important contribution to the strengthening of European security.

The policy of Stockholm in support of Allende’s regime in Chile and the Indochinese communists was also mentioned by Soviet state controlled media as “positive”. Mr. Olof Palme, the Swedish prime minister later assassinated, termed this policy “active neutrality”. It could have been a term produced by the Kremlin. In fact it stood for criticism of the West and silence about injustices in communist countries.

Olof Palme started attacking American policy in Indochina in the early 1970s. Swedish aid to the regime in Hanoi and its appendix Viet Cong/NLF had started already in 1969. In 1967 and 1970 anti-American so called “war crimes tribunals” were held in Stockholm to propagandize the cause of the Vietnamese communists. It should be noted that the 1970 “tribunal” was organized by the Soviet international front organization World Peace Council (WPC).

Of interest is to note that during the years of 1970 to 1976 Swedish ministers only visited communist countries in the Soviet sphere. The Olof Palme governments from 1973 could only rule with support in parliament by Sweden’s Communist Party (VPK). This led to the Social Democrats being forced to make concessions to VPK.

During the Palme years as prime minister Sweden even progressed into a leading subversive center for Soviet style communism. Growing amounts of aid was distributed to communist-leaning and Marxist regimes as well as to various terrorist organizations. The most important aid was to North Vietnam with aid continuing into the 1980s. In 1979, for example, over US $ 200 million, were received in Swedish aid by the heirs of Ho Chi Minh.

Latin American terrorism received generous support, directly or indirectly. The regime in Havana benefited greatly. Allende’s extreme leftist regime was lauded. Sweden received a large number of Latin American refugees, some with ties to terrorist organizations. Circa 400 Argentinians, just under 400 Bolivians, almost 500 Brazilians, nearly 2,500 Chileans, around 350 Colombians, over 200 Peruvians and 730 or so refugees from tiny Uruguay. Many certainly had legitimate reasons for being admitted as refugees but many slipped into Sweden to continue supporting terrorist causes. These refugees in some cases established links to the Cuban Embassy in Stockholm. The Swedish-Cuban Society was then regarded as an important link with the embassy. Sweden also moved into becoming a “transition zone” for terrorists trained in the USSR for infiltration into the West.

Among those apprehended were Nelson Gutierrez, second-in-command of MIR, a Chilean Maoist organization. The Mexican terrorist Gonzales Carrillo, was sent to Sweden in January 1976 from Havana. He had been condemned in Mexico to 40 years of imprisonment for political terrorism. On April 1, 1977, the Swedish police broke up an international terrorist group and arrested over 30 of them, some of them from Latin America. The group had planned to kidnap a Swedish ex-minister to achieve the release of West German terrorists imprisoned in then West Germany.

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SUBVERTING SCANDINAVIA – SOVIET COLD WAR DISINFORMATION, ESPIONAGE AND POLITICAL WARFARE – NO. 1 IN A SERIES

May 28, 2015

The present Russian disinformation aggression against the West is to a great extent based on Soviet techniques during the 1980s, when the Soviet Union was experiencing a downturn towards collapse. It might therefore be of interest to recall some of the Soviet activities in Scandinavia during the last decade of the existence of the Soviet regime. Scandinavia is an area close to the Soviet and Russian empires . Scandinavia in the twenty first century along with Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland feels a cold wind of threat from the East in the Baltic Sea area.

No doubt the Soviet Union in the 1980s regarded the northern flank of Europe as important. It comprised not only the NATO countries Denmark, Iceland and Norway but also non-aligned Sweden and Finland.

The Soviets were studying the concept of a strike through Scandinavia to outflank the central front in then West Germany. The Manchurian Campaign in 1945 was studied as well as the Nazi Blitzkrieg against Norway and Denmark in 1940. The Nazi landings in 1940 were almost duplicated in the Soviet Sever exercise of 1968 and Okean of 1970. Soviet naval forces then sailed out of the Baltic and along the Danish and Norwegian coasts to conduct amphibious landings on the Pechenga Peninsula in the Arctic.

The Manchurian campaign of the Soviet Union used strategic surprise as a model. It was the primacy of offensive employing massive forces. Extensive use of deception and camouflage in the pre-attack period was also employed. The chief weakness of the enemy, the Japanese Kwangtung Army (and of NATO’s northern flank during the Cold War) was the failure to prepare in depth.

Soviet military strategy continuously stresses the importance of directing the main attack at a place where the enemy least expects it. This had a special meaning in the Cold War when NATO’s forces were most heavily concentrated on the border between West and East Germany. Meanwhile on the northern flank it was little more than a tripwire.

The Soviets wrote extensively on the Maginot Line and how the Nazis outflanked the Allies by going through the Benelux countries. Soviet mass murdering leader, Lenin, originally referred to the Western colonies when the doctrine of the weakest link was presented but it had military applications as well. Depriving NATO of its northern flank would mean less ability for Germany to resist Soviet attacks. If West Germany went, so would probably all of NATO’s European member states.

It is against this background facts will be presented here to demonstrate the dangers of leaving the northern flank almost undefended. A few examples from the Cold War: on the Norwegian-Soviet border two motorized rifle divisions totaling 27,000 men faced only 500 Norwegian border guards. Close to the border was the largest military concentration in the world at the time, the Kola Peninsula. In northern Norway there were only three airfields with runways over 1,700 meters.

During the Cold War internal forces in Scandinavian countries with pro-Soviet leanings combined with Moscow-directed forces to weaken the northern flank. It was in reality a most dangerous security situation in Scandinavia.

US SENATOR GRAHAM, SC, REPUBLICAN: ISIS TAKING RAMADI IS ‘EXHIBIT A’ OF OBAMA’S MILITARY FAILURE

May 21, 2015

Fox News on May 18, 2015 reported that Sen. Lindsey Graham (R-SC) spoke to Fox News Greta Van Susteren in a wide-ranging interview about ISIS taking over Ramadi and his June 1 announcement on plans to run for the White House. Excerpts below:

ISIS…gained control of Ramadi after Iraqi government forces abandoned the city.

An estimated 25,000 people fled from the key Iraqi city after ISIS fighters began their assault on the city center over the weekend…

Graham told Van Susteren that ISIS gaining control over Ramadi “is a predictable outcome of withdrawing all forces back in 2011.”

The potential 2016 presidential candidate explained that since President Barack Obama refused to take the military’s advice to leave troops behind in Iraq, “everything you see before you is a result of that big mistake.”

Graham also shared that he is “99 percent” sure that he will run for president in 2016.

He said that he will make an announcement on his intentions June 1 in his hometown of Central, South Carolina.

CHINA’S FUTURE – SOVEREIGNTY AND FEDERALISM

May 16, 2015

I

The question of the origin of the people of Taiwan can be answered with some certainty. The majority originates in Fukien province on mainland China. In addition there is a substantial number of ”mainlanders” who came to Taiwan after 1949. Then there are nine major tribal groups of indigenous inhabitants. But what about Taiwan as a part of China?

It is true that from 1683 to 1895 Taiwan was under the careless and weak control of the Manchu dynasty in far-off Peking. Officials representing Peking lived in a few towns on the island and squeezed the farmers in a way typical of central Chinese bureaucrats. They gave Taiwan nothing and took everything. Besides there were fifteen major rebellions between 1683 and 1843.

Before the Japanese occupied Taiwan in 1895 Formosa was proclaimed an independent republic, the first Asian republic. The new republic did recognize the suzerainty of the Emperor of China and regarded itself as a tributary State to China, but there was no question of Chinese sovereignty. Independent Taiwan was shortlived but ’Taiwan Min-chu Kuo’ is often overlooked by historians.

The Japanese saw the Taiwanese as a colonial people and few Japanese moved there. The Japanese were either in the armed forces, in Government service, or directors of industrial enterprises set up. But Taiwan was never pacified:

”…from the day the Japanese occupied the island in 1895 until they left in 1945…the number of arrested [Taiwanese] for attempts to overthrow the Japanese was never less than 8, 200 [1895 to 1920] …During the entire occupation there were nineteen major uprisings…By day the people toiled and sweated under the watchful eyes of their Japanese masters, but at night their choicest sons gathered in their poets’ clubs to talk and sing about the coming revolution”.

Following the Japanese defeat and surrender in 1945 Taiwan was retroceded to the Republic of China on October 25. After occupation by the Portuguese, Dutch, Spanish, Manchus, and Japanese, Taiwan was again under Chinese control. In 1949 the Republic of China moved to Taipei. Economic aid flowed from the United States and a higly successful land reform program in 1953 laid the ground for an uncomparable Taiwanese economic development.

In 2000 the Democratic Progressive Party (DPP) won the presidential election and Chen Shui-bian was installed as president. Already in 1999 the DPP National Congress had passed a resolution acknowledging that Taiwan, with the Republic of China as its formal national title, has been a sovereign country, and that this status can only be altered through a democratic process. Opinion polls have confirmed that 75 to 80 percent of the people of Taiwan reject PRC’s ”one country, two systems” model

for unification and more than 80 percent of the people consider Taiwan, the Republic of China, an independent sovereign country.

II

Thus it is never in doubt that Taiwan, Republic of China, is a sovereign nation. PRC has, has however, repeatedly claimed that it has sovereignty. In 1996 Li Peng stated that ”China has indisputable sovereignty over Taiwan”. In 1998 the PRC director of the State Council Taiwan Affairs Office repeated ”that China has sovereignty over Taiwan.” These statements continued during 1999. Now it was the Communist Chinese Party Central Office for Taiwan Affairs:

China has sovereignty over Taiwan – and this fact remains unchanged. The two sides are de facto one China.

Finally in 2000 the PRC State Council Taiwan Affairs Office said that ”China has sovereignty over Taiwan [which] remains unchanged…”

Sovereignty is a term of international law and in state law independence. It is that which makes a state a subject in international law. Politically the term is a description of the independence of a state in relation to other states and its equality in relation to these states.

No other conclusion can be drawn from the PRC statements above that they do not describe the true status of Taiwan according to existing legal doctrines.

If Taiwan was to accept the sovereignty of Peking it would not longer have the ability to decide over what could be described as the basic meaning of the concept: ”Sovereign is he who decides on the emergency situation.” 5) The decision would be made in Peking.

III

The European Union is an attempt by democracies to integrate through peaceful negotations and mutual trust. It must be accomplished with the consent of each European people. Every step is evaluated and approved by the citizens. Under no circumstances duress can be applied. The integration process has started with economic cooperation and freedom of movement across the borders. Opinions of small countries are respected and on January 1, 2002, the process takes another step by issuing banknotes of a common currency to replace older ones. But it has been a long process in reality starting not long after Word War II. The final goal might, in the view of some politicians, be a federal system with a president and a federal parliament.

Germany’s social democrat president, Johannes Rau, in September, 2000, called for the adoption of a European constitution stating that a project was needed to replace seven treaties with 13 amendments and 25 changes. This was not understandable to the European peoples. Also the goal of a federal System is not to concentrate power, but to delegate:

Natürlich führt der europäische Einigungsprozess dazu, dass jeder Mitgliedstaat auf einen Teil Souveränität zugunsten gemeinschaftlichen Handelns verzichten muss…die Globalisierung [hat] die Souveränität der Nationalstaaten gravierend aushöhlt und dass das in einem demokratisch unkontrollierten Prozess geschieht.

Die Erweiterung und die dafür nötigen Voraussetzungen führen uns überdeutlich vor Augen, dass die Verfahren, nach denen Europa bisher gebaut und gesteuert wurde, reformbedürftig sind.

Gemeinsam mit dem italienischen Staatspräsidenten Ciampi habe ich die Schirmherrschaft für eine Konferenz europäischer Forschungsinstitute im November 2000 in Mailand übernommen, bei der den notwendigen Bestandteile einer europäischen Verfassung erörtert werden sollen: die Grundrechtscharta, ein europäische Kompetenzkatalog in klarer Abgrenzung zu nationalen und regionalen Kompetenzen und europäische Institutionen, die demokratische legitimation und politische Handlungsfähigkeit miteinander verbinden.

President Rau continued to state that the first part of a constitution would be a charter of basic rights. What about the second part:

Worum muss es im zweiten Teil der Verfassung gehen? Wir müssen präzise festlegen und abgrenzen, wer in Europa für welche Entscheidungen zuständig ist.

Die drei Abschnitte der Verfassung – Grundrechtskatalog, Zuständigkeitsregelungen und Verhältnis der Institutionen – geben einem Europa Gestalt, wie wir es uns für morgen wünschen können; ein Zusammenschluss von Staaten, die einen Teil ihrer Hoheitsrechte gemeinschaftlichen Einrichtungen übertragen, damit sie durch gemeinsames Handeln Souveränität und praktische Handlungsfähigkeit zurückgewinnen.

An alternative to a constitution of the European Union, which is necessary, could until then be a ”reorganisation of the Treaties”. The first part would list all constitutional regulations in a way understandable to every citizen. The second part would comprise the regulations of implementation.

Could this be a model for integration of Taiwan and PRC? First the matter of the political system of the PRC would have to be taken into account. PRC is not a political democracy but a one party state ruled in effect by the Chinese Communist Party. An integration of Taiwan with such a state could not follow the European example. The European Union is based on the existence of parliamentary democracy in all states. Secondly, even under those circumstances, there remains the problem of the member states handing over all or part of their sovereignty to a commission or government based in Brussels. At present the European Commission is not elected by the peoples of the union through a majority of the members of the European parliament. So under the present circumstances the European Union is not fully based on democratic rules. With a federal constitution and a commission responsible to a European parliament these flaws in the democratic structure could be rectified.

This of course does not mean that at some time in the future the European Union, if it fullfills all democratic demands, could be a model for the integration between Taiwan and China. But that means that both partners in the latter integration must be democracies. At this time only Taiwan is a fullfledged democracy while PRC remains a one-party state controlled by the Chinese Communist Party.

IV

At the writing of this manuscript the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) meeting in Shanghai has been completed. Taiwan correctly boycotted, after PRC refused to accept former Vice President Li Yuan-zu, after Peking repeatedly refused to accept President Chen to attend himself. Taiwan was also barred from an anti-terrorism ministerial meeting.

At Shanghai the PRC formula for reunification was repeated at a meeting between President George W. Bush and China’s Jiang Zemin on October 19: We hope that the United States adhere to the one-China principle and abide by the three Sino-U.S. joint communiques. President Bush reaffirmed that the U.S. government pursued the principle and the communiques.

Although progress has been made in the field of U.S. defense of Taiwan and willingness to sell military equipment, the one-China formula still seems to be the basis for USA-PRC relations. Former United States President Ronald Reagan commented as far back as 1978 on the interpretation of the Taiwan formula:

Commenting on the risks of treaties he said:

Let’s take an agreement which while not a formal treaty was still a joint communique between the heads of state of 2 nations enunciating a policy. I’m talking about the Shanghai communique that climaxed the visit of an American Pres. to the Peoples Republic of China a few years ago. In looking at it one is apt to be more confused than enlightened.

The Chinese made a statement with regard to our long time ally the Free Republic of China on Taiwan, that it, quote ”opposes the creation of 2 Chinas, and independent Taiwan or a seperate solution” unquote. The U.S, in turn, says quote ”that it does not challenge that view.” To Americans this was plain English that meant we neither agreed nor disagreed – we simply avoided the issue.

Unfortunately it is not that easy & simple. The Chinese translation of the phrase, ”does not challenge” is taken to mean that because we make no objection we agree with Chinas position. Then there is a sentence to the effect that there should be a peaceful solution to the problem of Taiwan. We would interpret that to mean that Peking won’t launch an attack or try to conquer Taiwan by force of arms. Again Peking denies that this language binds them to seek a peaceful solution.

These comments by Ronald Reagan before he became president no doubt shows that there could be a misinterpretation of the Shanghai communiques. It would really be deplorable if the U.S. one-China policy at least partly is based on an incorrect interpretation of the texts.

V

A step forward was made in 2001 the ROC accession to the World Trade Organization. President Chen Shui-bian rightly concluded that: ”as an independent sovereign country, the ROC” 10) would comply with the World Trade Organization ”and would actively participate in all WTO activities ”under the principle of equal participation”. No observer can seriously consider the PRC designation ”Chinese Taipei” forced upon the WTO by Peking.

It is to keep in mind that Iraq, Iran, Libya and Pakistan have developed nuclear, chemical and biological weapons with the aid of PRC. China is only too happy to use the struggle against international terrorism for its own purposes, although verbally supporting the coalition. The present ad hoc alliance between the United States and Pakistan can be used by the Chinese government to pressure India, which is regarded as one of the competitors of PRC in Asia. A move toward peaceful relations between India and Pakistan would remove opportunities for Peking destabilization. It is also important to point out to Russia that it must reduce its sales of advanced weapons to China. By providing help to build a stable, democratic, and free market the reliance of Moscow on weapons export can also be reduced.

Chinese attacks on American hegemony continue after the September 11 terrorist attacks. In 1999 two PRC colonels, Qiao Liang and Wang Xiangsui, published a text on ”War Without Limits”. The basic thesis was that attacks can be undertaken that go beyond the scope of military warfare but achieves the objectives of fighting a war:

The series of attacks taking place in the United States were very dreary and terrifying, but they must not be viewed from a single perspective. While the thousands of innocent people killed or injured in the attacks were victims of terrorism, they also were victims of US foreign policy. The September 11, 2001 very likely is the beginning of the decline of the United States, as a superpower.

The attacks demonstrated the United States’ fragility and weakness and showed that essentially it is unable to stand attacks. The National Missile Defense [NMD] system cannot save it. The United States, a giant ‘tiger,’ has been dealing with mice; unexpectedly, this time it was bitten by ‘mice’; it has been wielding a large hammer but has been unable to find the flea. From a short-term perspective, the attacks in the United States will very likely have some effect on China’s economy — they might affect China’s economic growth. However, from a long-term viewpoint, they could be favorable to China.”

These views expressed by the Chinese military no doubt reflects the basic attitude of PRC. There is interest in Peking to take advantage of trade as strengthening the economy. In this respect it is important for the leadership to retain good relations with the United States. But there is an undercurrent of belief that any weakening of the United States could be an advantage in the long term for PRC.

It is important, therefore, to view the continued cross strait relations between ROC and PRC in the light of realistic politics. No doubt there is value in continued expansion of contacts between the two nations but at the same time caution is recommended. There is an interest in Peking in a weakened Republic of China. As relations unfold vigilance is important. PRC’s long term strategy remains. It is a regional policy to weaken the influence of the United States to be able to achieve sovereignty over the Republic China as soon as possible.

An economic slump for PRC may mean growing aggressive nationalistic behaviour from Peking. There is reason for the Republic of China to be on its guard. Meanwhile it is important to look ahead for the possibly biggest victim of the September 11 attacks. The People’s Republic of China.

PHILIP ANSCHUTZ ON EARLY WESTERN BUSINESS LEADERS

May 15, 2015

Forbes reported that in January 2015, Phil Anschutz of Colorado published his first book: “Out Where The West Begins: Profiles, Visions and Strategies of Early Western Business Leaders.” Excerpts below:

It’s fascinating reading, though many would prefer that the Denver tycoon write about his own life. Over four decades Anschutz has built fortunes from oilfields (Anschutz Exploration Co.), railroads (Southern Pacific), telecom (Qwest Communications), sports teams (Los Angeles Kings and a third of the Lakers).

His Xanterra owns and operates lodges and restaurants at National Parks like Yellowstone and the Grand Canyon. His American Museum of Western Art in Denver houses his collection of masterpieces by Frederic Remington, Charles M. Russell, Albert Bierstadt and others.

AUTHOR BERTIL HAGGMAN RECOMMENDS: TAIWAN SHOULD PROMOTE EUROPEAN LINKS

May 14, 2015

Taiwan Info has reported on author Bertil Haggman’s visit to Taiwan in 1980. Excerpts below:

At the Freedom Day meeting in 1980, Haggman, former chairman of the Free Asia Committee in Sweden, expressed the hope that the Re¬public of China would establish a trade organization in Sweden.

He was told by K.H. Wu, sec¬retary-general of the China Ex¬ternal Trade Development Council, that the CETOC is inviting Swedish businessmen to visit Taiwan, and is also applying to the Swedish government to set up a trading organization.

An indication of how the gov¬ernment is succeeding in attracting foreign investment is shown in the statistics for last year.

Total foreign investment during the year was US$328,835,000, an all-time record, beating the previous high of US$248,¬854,000 in 1973.

Total foreign and overseas Chinese investment from 1952 to 1979 was US$2.25 billion, the statistics showed.

Comment: Support for Taiwan is crucial in a situation when the island republic, vital to the West and to Free Asia, is in complicated negotiations with the Chinese regime on a possible deal in the future. There is promise in this but also danger. With a possible Pacific Treaty Organization (PTO) of free and democratic countries in the Asia-Pacific area Taiwan is a vital part in the defense of freedom in Asia.

A MOST INFLUENTIAL CATHOLIC ORDER

May 14, 2015

There is a lingering suspicion in Lutheran Scandinavia concerning the Jesuits, so it was with some hesitation I opened the new book by John W. O’Malley, SJ, on this most influential of Catholic orders. The Jesuits – A History from Ignatius to the Present (Rowman & Littlefield, 2014, 137 pages) is the work of a Washington DC Roman Catholic priest and professor in the department of theology at Georgetown University. He has a central position as a Jesuit historian being among other things president of the American Catholic Historical Association and the Renaissance Society of America.

His book is the story of great achievement of the order. They have been missionaries, educators, scientists, cartographers, theologians, poets, patrons of the art, and confessors to kings. Professor O’Malley must be lauded for writing such a compelling, comprehensive book. It deserves a place in public and university libraries also in Lutheran countries.

As the interest of this reviewer is geopolitics it deserves to be mentioned that Matteo Ricci, the great Jesuit discoverer and cartographer in China, is presented in the book but could have been given a more prominent place.

Leading European nations were historically interested in probing the military capabilities of China. Matteo Ricci’s observations in that field were of great importance. Among other things he reported that Chinese men were not very goods soldiers:

Rarely do they wound or kill each other…not only are there few soldiers, but most of them don’t even have a knife in the house. In short one has no more to fear from them than one would have from any large crowd of people;

Thus Ricci contributed to the European belief that Chinese culture was one of peace not bent on conquest. The Communist regime on Beijing has certainly changed Chinese foreign and military policy since 1949. The aggressive behaviour of the Chinese in the South China Sea is evidence to that.

When Ricci arrived in Ming China in the late sixteenth century he could claim expertise in global mapping. His mappa mundi created an uproar in China because the Chinese imperial view was that China was central in the world. Ricci’s map, “Complete Map of the Earth’s Mountain and Seas” was published in 1584. It had a flattened sphere projection with parallel latitudes and curving longitudes. It made the Chinese aware of the locations of Europe, America and Africa and Ricci even invented the Chinese terms for these continents. Chinese Cartographers, however, continued to depict their country as the “Central Kingdom”. The New World was shown as a series of small islands. The traditional China grid system in cartography was continued to be used during the late Ming and Qing periods.

One of world history’s most important and influential Jesuits is not mentioned in this otherwise excellent book: Edmund A. Walsh, SJ.

Founder of The School of Foreign Service of Georgetown University he was in 1922-24 head of the Papal Relief Mission in Russia and Papal Negotiator with the Mexican Government. For his work in Russia he should be gratefully remembered by the Kremlin, but probably isn’t. Furthermore Father Walsh played an important role in the founding of the Jesuit College in Baghdad, consulted at the Nuremberg Trials.

Most important, though, is the fact that Walsh was one of America’s most important geopoliticians and anticommunists. One of the most impressive feats concerning the influence and power was the Louisiana Purchase in 1803.

Walsh wrote:

Thomas Jefferson’s acquisition of Louisiana in 1803 was geopolitics in its very definition. To secure one key city and an open port for the exports of the Mississippi Valley, he purchased an empire and suggested to Congress that it overlook ‘metaphysical subtleties’. Seward’s purchase of Alaska in 1867 and his subsequent interest in Greenland gave far more evidence of politico-geographic acumen than is commonly attributed to that tempestuous member of Lincoln’s cabinet. Theodore Roosevelt had a very practical understanding of geopolitics as applied to the Isthmus of Panama.”

Most important was, however, Professor Walsh’ book Total Empire (1951). It was a central study of geopolitics of the Cold War exemplified in the Communist political policy of universal conquest. It was a grand forecast and Father Walsh had it right. The Soviet Union collapsed in
1991.

It would not be an exaggeration to say that Jesuits had a great influence on the foreign policy of the United States during the Cold War.

Here also the views of Walsh on the Monroe Doctrine is of interest. In the Senate during a hearing he had a tilt with several of the Senators on the finer points of the Monroe Doctrine. It not only excluded more than the acquisition of territory in the New World:

These are Monroe’s words, “The prohibition effects not only territory, it effects the extension of a system”.

This reviewer take it that Monroe meant the extension of a system of liberty and the prevention of the introduction of totalitarian system in the Western Hemisphere.

Edmund Walsh should be mentioned along with Professor Nicholas Spykman of Yale University and Dr. Isaiah Bowman of The John Hopkins University as well as Alfred Thayer Mahan.

The central role of the Jesuit father at Georgetown University in the field of understanding Communist philosophy and tactics cannot be underestimated. Speaking in 1937 he mentioned education in Communist ideology in the United States as important:

For fifteen years, at home and abroad, in classroom, in lecture hall, in group conferences and by written word, I have sought to make Communism better understood, by laying bare its origin, its principles, its claim to universal domination and the importance of its challenge to Christianity and to democracy. In my opinion it is one of the inescapable and major problems of modern civilization.

SENATOR MARCO RUBIO IS CALLING FOR ‘PEACE THROUGH STRENGTH’

May 14, 2015

Washington Times on May 13, 2015, reported that Republican presidential hopeful Sen. Marco Rubio of Florida is calling for increasing military spending and for the U.S. to aggressively confront Russia, China and others that he says threaten the nation’s economic interests. Excerpts below:

Sen. Marco Rubio continues to perfect his presidential posture, delivering a major policy speech at the Council on Foreign Relations on Wednesday night, revealing the three “pillars” of his ideal doctrine: A strong America, the protection of the U.S. economy on a global stage and the moral clarity of the nation. Mr. Rubio also alluded to the bywords of the Reagan era, when the simple motto “peace through strength” sustained the U.S. through the Cold War.

“American strength. This is an idea that stems from a simple truth: the world is at its safest when America is at its strongest. When America has the mightiest Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, Coast Guard, and intelligence community in the world, the result is more peace, not more conflict,” Mr. Rubio said.

“To ensure our strength never falters, we must always plan ahead. It takes forethought to design and many years to build the capabilities we may need at a moment’s notice. So to restore American strength, my first priority will be to adequately fund our military. This would be a priority even in times of peace and stability, though the world today is neither peaceful nor stable.”

Comment: Senator Rubio is reviving the spirit of grand strategy theorist James Burnham, the pathbreaker, as he was called by famed German thinker Caspar von Schrenck-Notzing in his influential “Konservative Publizistik – Texte aus den Jahren 1961 bis 2008” (Berlin 2011). Von Schrenck-Notzing reminds us that Burnham:

Den Aussenpolitiker der konservativen Leitorgans National Review wurde unde schrieb von 1955 bis 1978 eine Kolumne, erst unter dem Titel “The Third World War”, seit 1970 “The Protracted Conflict”. 1964 erschien nach fuenfjaehriger Arbeit “Suicide of the West: An Essay on the Meaning and Destiny of Liberalism”, vielleicht sein aufschlussreichstes Buch. The destiny of the left is of vital importance for the survival of the West as a civilization. It is of great importance that the West revives the spirit of the 1980s. This is important to remember as we are waiting for the outcome of the struggle for the American presidency in 2016.

ARKEOLOGER REKONSTRUERAR HETMANATETS HUVUDSTAD BATURYN I UKRAINA

May 12, 2015

Sedan flera år tillbaka arbetar arkeologer i samarbete mellan Ukraina och Kanada med att restaurera Baturyn, det ukrainska hetmanatets huvudstad under det stora nordiska kriget. Baturyn förstördes av en rysk armé, som sänts ut för att förhindra att förråd och artilleri skulle överlämnas till Karl XII och hans armé.

Som ett resultat av den ryska förstörelsen är Baturyn i dag en mindre ort men en gång var den hetman Ivan Mazepas huvudstad. Här verkade också Filip Orlik, hans kansler och från 1710 hans efterträdare.

Ivan Mazepa var Karl XII:s bundsförvant i syfte att med svensk hjälp uppnå oberoende för Ukraina. Självfallet var det en tragedi för Baturyns invånare och illdådet mot Baturyn kastar en skugga över dåtidens ryska armé. Det är nu ukrainsk historia och det är värdefullt om staden kunde återfå sin forna glans.

Volodomyr Mezentsev är en kanadensisk arkeolog från Toronto, som länge arbetat med utgrävningar på platsen. I en intervju har han framhävt att den slutliga förstörelsen av den stolta huvudstaden kom under sovjetisk tid, då allt som fanns kvar från 1600- och 1700-talen röjdes undan. Det ansågs helt enkelt onödiga.

Arbetet i Baturyn fortsätter trots den sovjetiska ockupationen av Krim och aggressionen i östra Ukraina.

I en rapport i Canadio-Byzantina 26 (januari 2015) har Mezentsev i ”Excavations at Baturyn in 2014” redogjort för utgrävningarna under sommaren 2014:

The Kowalsky Program for the Study of Eastern Ukraine at the Institute of Ukrainian Studies (CIUS), the Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies (PIMS) and the Ucrainica Research Institute in Toronto are sponsoring the project.

Nu arbetar man med ett träpalats som byggdes under hetman Kyrylo Rozumovsky (1750 – 1764). Denne lät den italienske arkitekten Antonio Rinaldi färdigställa ritningar för palatset efter en inbjudan till Baturyn 1751.

När Ukraina är medlem i EU kommer säkert arbetet med återuppbyggnaden av Baturyn att kunna intensifieras så att staden kan återfå sin forna glans.

SENATOR JOHN MCCAIN: WHY IS OBAMA INVITING A LAWLESS CHINA TO PLAY IN THE PACIFIC

May 10, 2015

National Review on May 6, 2015, reported on Senator John McCain’s opposition to Obama’s policy in relation to lawless China.

The US president has suggested that China be reinvited to RIMPAC, the world’s largest naval wargame held in the Pacific. Excerpts below:

The Obama administration gave China its 2014 invite back in 2012, when the country was behaving a lot better. They hadn’t declared control over a huge swath of airspace between the mainland and Japan, and they hadn’t started building whole islands and military bases to advance their claims to ocean south of there, in the South China Sea.

By the time RIMPAC 2014 happened, China was already behaving noticeably worse in the Pacific, and then they brought an uninvited spy ship to the event.

So why bring the Chinese back next year? The main worry seems to be that it will annoy them and temporarily sour our relationship. The idea of inviting them in the first place was part of the Obama administration’s general approach to foreign policy: build trust through engagement.

It does not seem to have worked all that well — we welcomed China into the community of responsible Pacific militaries, they continued their expansionism.

It seems quite reasonable to kick them back out, as long as we make it clear that the point is not to exclude them from the Pacific but to exclude them until they’re ready to play by the rules.